The Kalingas are the indigenous people of the Kalinga. They are generally known to be tall, dark complexioned and lissome with high bridged noses. Physically, they are very sturdy and well built so that their war-like characteristics make them more like soldiers. They are believed to be descendants of the islands, as presented in Philippine history books.
The name Kalinga is believed to have come from Ibanag "Kalingaa" and Gaddang "Kalinga" whichh both mean headhunting during the tribal wars.
The Kalinga settle on the leveled or terraced areas on the slopes of steep mountains near rivers and streams with free, clear running water through the Chico, Pasig, Tanudan rivers with wide plateaus and floodplains and large portion of open grass lands.
Many villages or ili in Kalinga are located in strategic areas where the villagers can be forewarned of inturders, or where the surrounding terrain is rugged and form a natural defense because of " tribal wars". Tribal wars occur when a bodong peace pact system was broken or violated.
The bodong is the most admirable and efficient Kalinga institution. It is a peace pact or treaty between two tribes, wherein the Pagta or laws on inter-tribal relations are made. The bodong is also the Magna Carta of the Kalinga.
The main source of livelihood among the Kalinga is the payaw (ricefields) and the uma (swidden farm). Aside from food production, cattle are pastured there and poultry are raised in the backyard. Small fish (ugadiw), shell and marine life are taken from rivers. Men hunt in the forest using spears, indigenous traps or rifles for wild pigs, deer, and wild fowl. Fruit trees, coconut, coffee, and bananas are grown while sugarcane is planted and made into basi (wine). Other economic activities among the Kalinga are cloth and basket weaving, blacksmithing and pottery.
The Kalinga household consists of a nuclear family and sometimes, an aged grandparent. In general, the Kalinga show great respect for elders and they are clannish.
The Kalinga society may be stratified into lawa or kapus (poor) and the baknang (wealthy). Among the signs of prestige and wealth are possessions of several ricefields, working animals, heirblooms like china plates and jars, agate head/necklaces and brass gongs.
The identification of the self with the kinship circle could be such that whatever an individual does is the responsibility of the group, and whatever threatens the security of the group must be opposed by the individual.
ONCC-CAR Research division
Igorots- Ethnongraphics of major tribes Vol. 1 CSC
NSO 1990 Census of Population of Housing
Dr. Soledad B. Reyes
ONCC head count