The earth consists of several layers. The three main layers are the core, the mantle and the crust. The core is the inner part of the earth, the crust is the outer part and between them is the mantle. The earth is surrounded by the atmosphere. Till this moment it hasn't been possible to take a look inside the earth because the current technology doesn't allow it. Therefore all kinds of research had to be done to find out, out of which material the earth consists, what different layers there are and which influence those have (had) on the earth's surface. This research is called seismology.
The inner part of the earth is the core. This part of the earth is about 1,800 miles (2,900 km) below the earth's surface. The core is a dense ball of the elements iron and nickel. It is divided into two layers, the inner core and the outer core. The inner core - the center of earth - is solid and about 780 miles (1,250 km) thick. The outer core is so hot that the metal is always molten, but the inner core pressures are so great that it cannot melt, even though temperatures there reach 6700ºF (3700ºC). The outer core is about 1370 miles (2,200 km) thick. Because the earth rotates, the outer core spins around the inner core and that causes the earth's magnetism. More info...
The layer above the core is the mantle. It begins about 6 miles(10 km) below the oceanic crust and about 19 miles(30 km) below the continental crust (see The Crust). The mantle is to divide into the inner mantle and the outer mantle. It is about 1,800 miles(2,900 km) thick and makes up nearly 80 percent of the Earth's total volume. More info...
The crust lays above the mantle and is the earth's hard outer shell, the surface on which we are living. In relation with the other layers the crust is much thinner. It floats upon the softer, denser mantle. The crust is made up of solid material but these material is not everywhere the same. There is an Oceanic crust and a Continental crust. The first one is about 4-7 miles (6-11 km) thick and consists of heavy rocks, like basalt. The Continental crust is thicker than the Oceanic crust, about 19 miles(30 km) thick. It is mainly made up of light material, like granite. More info...
- Plate Tectonics
The earth is surrounded by all kind of gases. This layer is called the earth's atmosphere. Without these atmosphere life on earth isn't possible. The atmosphere gives us air, water, warmth and is protecting us against harmful rays of the sun and against meteorites. This layer around the earth is a colorless, odorless, tasteless 'sea' of gases, water and fine dust. The atmosphere is made up of different layers with different qualities. It consists of 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, 0,93% argon, 0,03% carbon dioxide and 0,04% of other gases. The Troposphere is the layer where the weather happens, above this layer is the Stratosphere. Within the Stratosphere is the Ozone layer, that absorbs the Sun's harmful ultraviolet rays. Above the Stratosphere is the Mesosphere, the Thermosphere - in which the Ionosphere - and the Exosphere. The atmosphere is about 500 miles (800 km) thick. More info...
Influence of the Sun and the Moon
The sun and the moon both have their influence on the earth. Sometimes they cooperate and sometimes they counteract each other. Such influences are: the gravity, the warmth of the sun, the sunlight and the chronology. Through the gravitational force of the earth the moon orbits the earth. The moon also gravitates the earth, but less powerful. By the way gravity pulls the Earth and Moon toward each other, tides are caused (high tide and low tide). The sun also has some influence here. The sun brings light and is also responsible for the warming up of the earth. More info...
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Earth's Structure: Structure |
The Core | The Mantle | The Crust |
The Atmosphere | The Influence of the Sun and Moon
Plate Tectonics | Earthquakes | Volcanoes
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