Socrates was born in the mid 400's B.C He taught
philosophy and taught Plato. Before 400 B.C., he began questioning Athenian values, laws,
customs, and religion. In 399, he was brought to trial and found guilty of treason to the
gods. He was sentenced to death. His teachings were written down by his student, Plato. He
was the first to make a clear distinction between the body and soul, placing a higher
value on the soul. He had a noble life, and his calm acceptance of death made him a model
for other philosophers to follow.
of the most famous Greek philosophers, was born in Athens. His mother was Pericione, and
his father's name was Ariston. When his father died, Pericione married his uncle,
Pyrilampes. Plato wanted to be a politician, but he was repelled when his cousin Critias
and uncle Charmides became dictators of Athens,and they invited him to join them. He said
they had " cruel, unethical practices". In 403 B.C., democracy was restored to
Athens. Plato then tried to get involved in politics, but was repelled again when his
friend and teacher Socrates was sentenced to death in 399 B.C. Plato left Athens after
Socrates was killed. He returned in 387 B.C., and founded a school of philosophy called
the Academy. The Academy was held in a grove of trees that the Greek hero Academus
lived. It was
considered the first university by many people.
Aristotle was born in
Stagira. His father was Nichomachus, who was the personal physician to Amyntas II, king of
Macedonia. King Amyntas was the grandfather of Alexander the Great. Aristotle's parents
died when he was young, so a man named Proxemus raised him as his own. When he was 18, he
attended the Academy, where he was a student for 20 years. He was known as "the
intelligence of the school" and "reader". In 347 B.C., when Plato
died, Aristotle joined a group of Plato's disciples that lived with Hermias, a former
Academy student. He stayed for three years and married Hermias's adopted daughter,
Pithias. In 343 or 342 B.C., Philip II of Macedonia asked Aristotle to supervise the
education of his son, Alexander, who later conquered Greece. After he conquered the
Persian empire, he became known as Alexander the Great. Alexander studied under Aristotle
until his father, King Philip, was assassinated and he became king of Macedonia. Aristotle
returned to Athens in 334 B.C. and founded the Lyceum, a school of philosophy. HE and his
followers were called "peripatetic", which means "walking around".
Aristotle taught while he was walking. After Alexander the Great died in 323 B.C.,
Aristotle was charged with impiety, which was a lack of reverence for the gods, by the
Athenian people. The Athenians resented his friendship with Alexander, who conquered them.
Aristotle went to Chalcis, remembering similar charges against Socrates in 349 B.C. He
died one year later in Chalcis.