Newfoundland has four physiographic regions. They are the Atlantic Uplands regions made up ancient erosion resistant rock; the Central Lowland, a region of soft sedimentary rocks; the Newfoundland Highlands, a region that contains the Long Range Mountains.
Labrador lies within the Canadian Shield which is a region of ancient erosion-resistant rocks. Glaciation has caused most of this area to be barren and rocky. The Grand Banks are to the southeast of the island and is one of the world's richest fishing grounds.
Churchiel is the longest river in Newfoundland. Other rivers include the Explorts, Grandier, Humber, Grand, Red, and Indian.