Before the great Ancient Greek philosophers, life and nature was based on the gods and their actions. But in the 6th century great "lovers of knowledge" came around in search of a more logical way of making sense of the world and the world around them. Philosophers discovered many great advances that were used in math, history, geography, medicine, and in astronomy. Much of today's language comes from the Greeks, and we now use it in math and science.
The ideas of many philosophers are still used in today's society with the study of various subjects. The study of philosophy is focused on two different areas. They vary from philosophers who searched for an explanation of the physical world, and those who stressed the importance of nonmaterial forms or ideas. For example, Thales believed that water is the basic substance out of which all matter is created. In contrast, Socrates' purpose was to search into himself and other men.
Yet 2,000 years later many advances and influences in our western world can be contributed to the works of ancient Greek philosophers.
Thales- (625? - 546?B.C.) Thales was the first person to question if the gods were responsible for the forces of nature. He was the founder of Greek philosophy and soon became known as one of the Seven Wise Men of Greece.
Pythagoras- (582? - 500? B.C.) Pythagoras was a great philosopher and mathematician whose doctrines, or principals strongly influenced Plato. Pythagoras also believed in immortality and in transmigration. He was also said to have claimed that he was Euphorbus, a warrior in the Trojan war.
Socrates- (470? - 399? B.C.) Socrates posed his students many questions aimed at getting a clearer understanding of the world. Aged 70, he was prosecuted for corrupting the minds of the young and sentenced to death.
Plato- (circa 428 - c. 347 B.C.) He was a Greek philosopher, and was one of the most creative and influential thinkers in western philosophy. Plato was also one of Socrates' pupils and was a great debater. Plato's earliest collection of work include 35 dialogs and 13 letters. In 387 B.C. Plato founded the Academy in Athens which was the first European university which included the subjects of astronomy, biology, mathematics, political theory, and philosophy.
Aristotle - (384-322B.C.) Aristotle's ideas dominated science for nearly 2 millenniums after his death in 323 B.C. He also believed that the 4 qualities that were found in nature were heat, cold, moisture, and dryness. The 4 elements he thought were fire, water, air, and earth.
Other great philosophers................
Aristarchus- He developed the planetary system and that the sun was centered in the system.
Archimedes- He developed mechanics and hydrostatics.
Theophrastus- He was the founder of Botany.
Hipporcus- He developed trigonometry.
Herephilus and Erasistratus- He developed anatomy and physiology on dissection.