ZONES OF THE
THE EUPHOTIC ZONE
The euphotic zone is where sunlight is able to
penetrate. This is the well lit zone.The euphotic zone is filled with many different
plants and animals.Examples of the animals are Flying Fishes, Moray Eels, Cleaner Wrasse,
Sea Cucumber and Anemone, Pearlfish, Doctors Mortar, Sea Pens, Sawfish, Pacific
Angel Shark, Orange Sea Cucumber, Manta Ray, Remora, Anchovies, Banded Sea Snake and Ocean
THE MESOPELAGIC ZONE 500
TO 3,000 FEET
This zone is also known as the middle ocean zone. It is
too dark for plants to grow. Sharks and other streamlined fish are able to swim to these
depths to hunt. Animals in this zone survive by eating each other and scavenging dead
animals.The animals are the Hammerhead Shark, Giant Squid, Gulper Eel, Crustacean,
Luminous Prawn, Lantern Fish, Headlamp
Fish and Sea Spider.
THE BATHYPELAGIC ZONE 3,300
TO 10,000 FEET
This zone is known as the deep ocean sea. This area is
pitch black. Food is scarce in these depths. The fish of this zone have weak, soft
bodies.The animals are the Hatchetfish, Deep-sea Anglerfish, Oarfish, Squid, Viperfish and
THE ABYSSAL ZONE 10,000 TO
The Tube Worm
The animals are the Anglerfish, Deep-sea Jellyfish,
Venuss Flower Baskets, Brittle Stars, Rat Tails, Deep-sea Shrimp, Deep-sea Anglers,
Abyssal Sea Cucumbers, Stalked Crinoids, Brotulids, Tripod Fish, Lampshells, Tube Worms,
Deep-sea Swimming Sea Cucumber, Sea Snails, Abyssal Octopus, Deep-sea Eel, and
There are four oceans. They are the Pacific Ocean, the
Atlantic Ocean, the Indian Ocean, and the Arctic Ocean. Oceans comprise 75% of the Earth.
- The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest ocean in
- It covers 63, 800,000 square miles (165, 200, 000 square
- The Pacific Ocean is so big it could fit all of the
- Near the Equator the Pacific Ocean stretches 11,000 miles,
almost half way around the world.
- The deepest known spot in the ocean is the Mariana Trench,
southwest of Guam, it is 36, 198 feet below the surface (11,033 meters).
- The word pacific means peaceful. However, the Pacific
Ocean is far from peaceful. Thousands of volcanoes rise up from the Pacific Ocean.
- The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest
body of water.
- The Atlantic Ocean covers about 31, 530,00 square miles (81,
662, 000 square kilometers).
- Its average depth is about 14,000 feet (4,270 meters).
- The deepest part of the Atlantic Ocean is the Puerto Rico
Trench 28, 374 feet (8,648 meters).
- The Indian Ocean is smaller than the
- The Indian Ocean covers about 28,356,000 square miles
(73,441,700 square kilometers.
- The deepest spot is 25,344 feet (7,725 meters) is south of
- The Arctic Ocean lies at the top of the
- The Arctic covers about 3,662,000 square miles (9,485,100
- Its greatest depth is 17,880 feet (5,450 meters).
- Seawater contains an average of 3.5% salt
- Contains magnesium, sulfur, and calcium.
- Seawater contains all of the elements from the Earths
- Salts in seawater help swimmers float.
Life in the Ocean
- All life in the ocean is divided into three main groups. They
are plankton, nekton, and benthos.
- Plankton are all of the creatures in the sea
that drift and float and rely on the tides to move them from place to place.
- Plankton are all microscopic. They are either phytoplankton
(microscopic plants) or zooplankton (jellyfish, copepods, arrowworms).
- Many animals rely on plankton for their existence.
- Nekton are all of the animals in the ocean
that are able to swim on their own, without the help of the tides. This includes over
20,000 fish in the sea. These animals range in size from sharks which 50 feet in length to
fish which are less than an inch long.
- Most nekton have streamlined bodies to help them swim more
- Some nekton can travel at remarkable speeds. The sailfish can
swim up to 30 miles an hour.
- Many nektonic animals are able to swim vast distances. For
example, the eel can travel thousands of miles.
- Benthos are animals which live at the bottom
of the sea.
- Examples of benthotic animals are sea snails, clams, sponges,
sea lilies, and starfish.
- Places in the oceans where the land slopes to about 600 feet.
This underwater land is called a continental shelf.
- The continental shelf extends hundreds of miles in certain
- The shelf is covered by continental deposit, which has
been carried by rivers into the ocean.
- The continental shelf slopes down to the continental edge.
This is where the continental slope begins.
- The continental slope extends to the abyss, or the
bottom of the ocean.
- There are mountains which rise from the ocean floor, and many
- There is a mountain range that extends 10,000 miles along the
Atlantic Ocean. It is called the Mid-Atlantic Range.
- Tides are caused by the gravitational pull of the moon.
- During full or new moons, the earth, the sun, and the moon
are in a straight line, at this time the sun and the moon combine the gravitational pull .
This results in the incoming tides at their highest and the outgoing tides at their
lowest. This is called a spring tide.
- When the moon phases into quarters, the sun and the moon are
at right angles to one another, and this results in a neap tide. The neap tides are
neither high nor low.
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