Julsius Caesar was born into a patrician family. As a boy he dreamed of
being a Senate leader. His dream became true. He became a Senate once he
got older. He also served as a commander in the army. By 59 BC Caesar
was elected to be a consul in Rome. The following year he became
the military governor of Gaul- which today is France. There he won fame
riches, and loyalty of a great army. Caesar could now try for his goal-
to be in total control of Rome.
49 BC Caesar marched his army into Italy. War between different groups
within the country, started a Civil War. This war spilled into Egypt.
There Caesar joined forces with Cleopatra. She was a twenty- one year old
ruler of the Egyptian government. Caesar helped Cleopatra defeat her brother,
the pharaoh of Egypt. In return she gave Caesar money he needed to continue
fighting for control of Rome. In 45 BC Caesar returned in triumph to Rome
and made himself a dictator. As a dictator he made important changes to
life in Rome. He changed the way people measured time, creating the basis
for the calendar we still use today. In Juliusís honor the month
of his birth was named ìJuly.î Caesar gave land to his soldiers
and grain to poor citizens. He also increased the number of citizens that
could be the Senate. Some Senators hated Caesar for ruling as a dictator.
They felt he was destroying the tradition of Romeís republican government.
Some citizens began plotting to kill him. He died in 44 BC by being stabbed
to death by his enemies.
Caesarís death, Mark Anthony who was Caesarís friend
went to war with Octavian. Octavian was Caesarís grand- nephew.
Anthony went to live in Egypt where he married the queen Cleopatra.
Octavian remained in Rome. War broke out between Rome and Egypt and it
was a victory for Rome and Octavian. Anthony and Cleopatra committed suicide
when they went back to Egypt. In the year 31 BC, Octavian became
emperor. The Senate changed Octavianís name to Augustus, which
means ìthe revered one.î Augustus was Romeís first
emperor, he ruled Rome from 27 BC to 14 AD. With Augustus ruling Romeís
trade and buiness thrived. The citizens were very happy with Augustus ruling.
The period in which Augustus ruled was known as the Augustan Age. Egypt
was now part of the Roman Empire.