- Training Tips
- Cells and Bones
- Joints and Muscles
- Movement and Muscle Fibers
- Energy Production in the Body
- The Cardio-respiratory System
- Nutrition and Calories
- Nutrients, Proteins and Carbohydrates
- Fats, Vitamins, Minerals, Water and Fiber
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Meet the Team
The International Amateur Athletics Federation
Around the Track and
Anatomy and Phisiology Basics:
It all starts with the smallest unit of living material
in our bodies, cells. Cells are the building blocks of life. Our bodies are
made up of millions on tiny, living cells. Cells make up our skin, bones, muscles,
brains and every other part of our bodies. Different types of cells do different jobs.
Some cells carry messages, like nerve cells; some cells carry chemicals, like
blood cells carrying oxygen; some cells support the body, like bone cells; some cells
move the body, like muscle cells.
A nerve cell
We humans have a skeleton inside our bodies that helps support our bodies. Our skeleton
also protects the organs inside our body. Along with the muscles, our bones also provide
us with the ability to move. In the human skeleton there are over 200 bones. Bones start
out as cartilage when we are born and most of our cartilage becomes bone. Cartilage is a
tough, flexible substance. The cartilage in our ears and at the end our noses are examples
of cartilage that never becomes bone.
Bone is very hard and strong and is made up of living and non-living parts.
The living part makes the bone a bit flexible while the non-living part makes
bone strong and rigid. Some sets of bones fit closely together forming joints.
At a joint, bones are linked by a tough, flexible substance called ligaments.
Joints allow us to move in different ways. For example, a hinge joint like the
knee makes it so that we can bend our knees. With a hinge joint, the bone can
only move in one direction. In a ball and socket joint, like the hip, the bone
can move in almost any direction as our legs and arms do.