The Industrial Revolution, which began in England at about 1760, made radical changes in every level of civilization all over the world. The heavy industry growth brought a flood of new building materials, such as cast iron, steel, and glass, with which architects and engineers devised structures of unimaginable size, form, and function.
In the second half of the 19th century dislocations brought about by the Industrial Revolution started to be overwhelming. Many were frightened by the hideous new urban districts of factories and workers' housing and the public taste of the newly rich. Architects were employed to build canals, tunnels, bridges, and railroad stations.
The Skyscraper which the architect Louis Sullivan designed, gave new meaning to the form of urban commercial buildings. His career evolved with the so-called Chicago School of Architecture. Their challenge was to build a skyscraper or high-rise building which was to be facilitated by the introduction of the electric elevator and massive abundance of steel. They made a great transition from the masonry walls to the steel frame. The building's skeleton could be constructed quickly and the rest of the building's remaining components could be hung on it to complete it, which was a great advantage for the high-rise buildings on busy city streets. Two of the most famous architects during the modern period are I.M Pei and Frank Lloyd Wright.
Reinforced concrete was the center of attention in France when Augusta Perret's apartment building, the Rue Franklin, and his Theatre des Champs-Elysees were built in France.
The Bauhaus school encouraged the modern movement to move along. It brought together architects, painters, and designers from many countries to set goals for the visual arts in the modern age.
International Style was started by the Bahaus architects and prevailed after the 1930s. The theory and practice of this style was introduced in the United States largely because of Philip C. Johnson's efforts.
Postmodern Architecture started when architects and critics between 1965 and 1980 said that there was no better style than postmodern. Even though postmodern was not as great as movement, such as modernism, they said that postmodernists value individuality, complexity, and sometimes even humor.