Microbiology terms - A
- Study of the interrelationships between organisms and their environments.
- A community of organisms and their natural environment.
- electron acceptor
- A substance that accepts electrons during an oxidation-reduction reaction. An electron
acceptor is an oxidant.
- electron donor
- A substance that donates electrons in an oxidation-reduction reaction. An electron donor is a
- electron-transport phosphyrylation
- Synthesis of ATP involving a membrane-associated electron transport chain and the creation
of a proton-movitve force. Also called oxidative phosphorylation.
- Separation of charged molecules (e.g. nucleic acids) in an electrical field.
- The use of an electrical pulse to enable cells to take up DNA.
- Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. An immunoassay that uses specific antibodies to detect
antigens or antibodies in body fluids. The antibody-containing complexes are visualized
through enzyme coupled to the antibody. Addition of substrate to the
enzyme-antibody-antigen complex results in a colored product.
- Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway (Embden-Meyerhof pathway; EMP pathway)
- A pathway that degrades glucose to pyruvate; the six-carbon stage converts glucose to
fructose-1,6-bisphosphate, and the three-carbon stage produces ATP while changing
glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate to pyruvate. Compare with Entner-Doudoroff pathway.
- Entner-Doudoroff pathway (ED pathway)
- A pathway that converts glucose to pyruvate and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate by producing
6-phosphogluconate and then dehydrating it..
- A disease that is constantly present in low numbers in a population. Compare with epidemic.
- A chemical reaction requiring input of energy to proceed.
- A process in which a particle such as a virus is taken intact into an animal cell. Phagocytosis
and pinocytosis are two kinds of endocytosis.
- endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
- An extensive array of internal membranes in eukaryotes.
- A differentiated cell formed within the cells of certain gram-positive bacteria and extremely
resistant to heat as well as to other harmful agents.
- The hypothesis that m.mitochondria and chloroplasts are the descendants of ancient
prokaryotic organisms from the domain Bacteria.
- A toxin not released from the cell; bound to the cell surface or intracellular. Compare with
- enrichment culture
- Use of selective culture media and incubation conditions to isolate microorganisms directly
- The common name for bacteria in the family Enterobacteriaceae.
- enteric bacteria
- A large group of gram-negative rod-shaped Bacteria characterized by a facultatively aerobic
metabolism. Many of them are commonly found in the intestines of animals.
- A toxin affecting the intestine.
- A protein functioning as a catalyst in living organisms, which promotes specific reactions or
groups of reactions.
- A disease occurring in an unusually high number of individuals in a population at the same
time. Compare with endemic.
- The study of the incidence and prevalence of disease in populations.
- Antigenic determinant.
- An old term for the Bacteria
- The phylogenetic domain containing all eukaryotic organisms.
- A cell or organism having a unit membrane-bound (true) nucleus and usually other organelles.
- evolutionary distance
- In phylogenetic trees, the sum of the physical distance on a tree separating organisms; this
distance is inversely proportional to evolutionary relatedness.
- exergonic reaction
- A chemical reaction that proceeds with the liberation of energy.
- The coding sequences in a split gene. Contrast with intron, the intervening noncoding region.
- A toxin released extracellularly. Compare with endotoxin.
- exponential growth
- Growth of a microorganism where the cell number doubles within a fixed time period.
- exponential phase
- A period during the growth cycle of a population in which growth increases at an exponential
- The ability of a gene to function within a cell in such a way that the gene products is formed.
- expression vector
- A clonng vector that contains the necessary regulatory sequences to allow transcription and
translation of a cloned gene or genes.
- extreme halophile
- An organism whose growth is dependent on large amounts (generally >10%) of NaCl.
Compiled by Tsute Chen, Converted by Ben Hoyt