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S E A R C H
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H O M E >>
T I M E L I N E >>
<p><br><br><!-- <img src="elements/box.gif" valign=center> --><font face="helvetica,arial" color="#006600" size=""> <B>Introduction</B></font><hr size=1 color="#999999">
Indepth reports cover food irradiaiton in detail -- be by the use of charts, or
extra information that is not essential to a basic understanding of food
X rays discovered by German physicist Wilhelm Konrad
Naturally occurring radiation emissions from radioactive materials discovered by French physicist Antoine Henri Becquerel. “Minsch publishes proposal to use ionizing radiation to preserve food by destroying spoilage microorganisms.”
Studies at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) on the effects of irradiation and bacteria published by Prescott.
British and United States patents given for irradiation of bacteria in foods.
Research begins on the effects of irradiation and lasts into the 1920s.
Schwartz reveals findings of a USDA study on X rays and Trichniella spiralis in pork.
Results of animal irradiation food feeding study published.
French patent issued for the irradiation of food as a method by which to preserve
foods and delay spoilage.
MIT receives United States Army contract to study the use of X rays and ground beef.
Throughout the late 1940s and early 1950s there was wide scale studies of food irradiation by the United States Government, the Atomic Energy Commission, the food industry, and universities. The U.S. Army and the meat-processing firm Swift and Company begin extensive long-term animal studies with irradiated food. Other countries also study ionizing radiation during the time period.
Food irradiation becomes a food additive under the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act of 1958. Future food additives would now require approval by the FDA.
The United Soviet States of Russia (U.S.S.R.) approves ionizing radiation to preserve potatoes and grains.
Use of irradiation to preserve potatoes approved by Canada.
The Federal Drug Administration (FDA) approves ionizing radiation usage on bacon, wheat, and potatoes.
Packaging materials safe with food irradiation approved by the FDA (many previous methods, such as glass, changed color during irradiation).
Several irradiated foods approved by the Joint Expert Committee on Food Irradiation (JECFI), with the recommendation that food irradiation be classified as a physical proves (the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act of 1958 classified food irradiation as a food additive, which remains today).
The JECFI declares radiation dosages of 10 kGy on food to present no toxicological hazard, and approves the use of irradiation foods with a maximum dose of 10 kGy.
Worldwide standards for food irradiation adopted by the Codex Alimentarius Commision (which represents 130 countries).
Irradiation approved to kill insects and parasites in spices by the FDA and the Canadian Health and Welfare Department.
Approval of irradiation in pork to kill Trichniella spiralis by the FDA.
Irradiation of foods up to 1 kGy to delay spoilage and insect infestation approved by the FDA.
Maximum doses of 3 kGy approved by the FDA in poultry to control pathogens.
Petition to irradiated red meats sent to the FDA.
commercial use of ionizing radiation to preserve food like poultry, tomatoes, strawberries, mushrooms, citrus products, and onions begins in the U.S.