Adelaide is the capital of South Australia
and the fifth largest city in Australia. It has a population
of 978,000. Adelaide is about 7 mi. (11 km.) from the coast.
The average temperature is 64° F (17.5° C). About 70%
of all South Australia residents live in Adelaide.
The Torrens River divides Adelaide into two
parts; the northern side, which is mostly residential, and the
southern side, which is mostly business and commercial. Adelaide
is heavily industrialized with chemical, tire and automobile
plants, as well as steel works, and sugar and oil refineries.
In the surrounding areas, there are dairy farms and apple orchards.
Alice Springs has a population of 22,000 people. It is the main
town in the Northern Territory, Australia. Alice Springs controls
cattle raising and mining in that area. They have the most tourists
during their long, warm winter (May to September). Alice Springs
can be accessed by railway, air or by the Stuart Highway. Alice
Springs was established in 1871.
Uluru is the traditional Aboriginal name for Ayers Rock. It is
in central Australia and is a 348 meter (1,143 feet) rock formation.
It is multicolored, oval-shaped, about 2 km. (1.5 mile) long,
and 1.5 km. (1 mile) wide. At different times of day it appears
to change color because the sun hits it at different angles.
At low places on the walls there are caves with Aboriginal paintings
in them. Uluru was discovered in 1972 by Ernest Giles and named
after an Australian premier, Sir Henry Ayers. The Australian
government returned ownership of Uluru to the Aboriginal people
Great Barrier Reef
The Great Barrier Reef is located in the Coral Sea 15-160 km.
(10-100 miles) west of Australia. It is made up of smaller islands,
reefs and shoals of coral. The Great Barrier Reef reaches southeast
for over 2,000 km. (1,250 miles). There are more than 350 species
of coral there, some of which have existed for millions of years.
Between the Australian coast and the main reef is the Lagoon.
The Lagoon is shallow and has many islands, some of which are
the peaks of ancient mountains that have submerged over millions
of years. Brightly colored crustaceans, fish, and shells are
visible through the clear waters. The Great Barrier Reef was
discovered by Captain James Cook in 1770.
Darwin is the capital city of Northern Territory in Australia.
It has about 40,000 residents and is located on a plain near
the coast of the Timor Sea. The climate in Darwin is warm ranging
from 22-33° C (71-91° F). It gets about 150 cm. (60 inches)
of rain each year, most of which comes during their summer (January-March).
Darwin is the major commercial and transportation center of northern
Australia. Some main industries are tile and brick manufacturing,
lumbering, and meat packing. They also raise cattle and mine
for uranium, bauxite, manganese, and iron.
It was founded in 1869 and the original name
was Palmerston, but it was renamed in 1911 for Charles Darwin.
During the gold rush in 1930, the population increased to 1,600.
During World War II, it was nearly destroyed by Japanese bombers,
so Australian and American troops were sent to defend the border.
After the war, it was almost destroyed once again by a cyclone,
but repairs began immediately afterward.
Melbourne is Australia's second largest city, with a population
of 3,002,500. It is a center for land, air, and sea routes since
a third of Australia's imports go through Melbourne. Some major
imports are petroleum, paper, timber, iron, steel, and chemicals.
Melbourne's main exports are wool and agriculture products. It
also manufactures ships, automobiles, clothing, metal, and rubber
products. Melbourne has a large public library, a modern arts
complex, several museums, and three universities. Melbourne is
the home of the State Parliament House and the Anglican and Roman
Mount Kosciusko is Australia's highest peak. It is located in
the Australian Alps, in southeast New South Wales. The top of
Mount Kosciusko reaches 2,228 m. (7309 ft.). During the winter
(May to September), winter sports are centered there. Mount Kosciusko
was discovered by P.E. Strzelecki in 1840 and named after his
partner, Taduesz Kosciuszko.
Sydney in New South Wales is the largest city in Australia. It
was also the first city established in Australia. It has a population
of about 3,623,600. Sydney covers about 55 mi. (90 km.) of Australia's
southeastern coast. The average temperature in Sydney is about
57° F (17.5° C). It is run by a lord mayor and aldermen
and the seat of the New South Wales government is also in Sydney.
Sydney is home to the Sydney Opera House and Sydney's deep water
harbor. The Sydney Harbor Bridge spans the harbor.
Sydney Opera House
The Sydney Opera House in Sydney was established
in 1973. It is the center of many recreational and cultural activities,
including opera, ballet, drama, music, and dancing. The Opera
House contains a concert hall, a drama theater, a larger opera
theater, an auditorium, and a cinema. Several companies' headquarters
are there. The companies are Sydney Theater, Modern Dance, Australian
Ballet, Australian Opera. Every January, the Opera House hosts
a month long celebration of the fine arts practiced there.