All organisms in the Kingdom Monera are prokaryotes. They lack nuclei and organelles and most of their cell walls are made of peptidoglycan (the exceptions are the archaebacteria). Most utilize flagella for movement.
Digestion is extracellular (outside the cell) and nutrients are absorbed into the cell. Many prokaryotes are organized by how the metabolize resources. Autotrophs manufacture their own organic compounds. Heterotrophs obtain their energy by feeding on other organic substances. Saprophytes, a special kind of heterotroph, obtain energy by feeding on decaying matter. Some bacteria live in symbiotic relationships with other organisms. In parasitism, harm is caused to the host. In commensalism, one organism benefits while the other is unaffected. In mutualism, both organisms benefit.
Circulation and digestion in Kingdom Monera is accomplished through diffusion.
Respiration in these organisms vary. In obligate aerobes, the prokaryotes must have oxygen to live. In obligate anaerobes, the organisms cannot survive in the presence of oxygen. And in facultative anaerobes they can survive with or without oxygen.
Most organisms in the Kingdom Monera reproduce through binary fission (asexual) or conjugation (sexual).
Recently, biologists have identified two distinct groups within Monera.
The eubacteria ("true bacteria") are characterized by how they metabolize resources, their means of motility, and their shape. The three basic shapes are cocci (spherical), bacillus (rod shaped), and spirillum (spirals).
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