The Northern and Southern Dynasties (420 AD ~ 589 AD)
During this period, civil wars broke out in the land of China. China was divided into different smaller lands occupied by the owners who claimed to be the emperor of the land. At this time, the country was not united at all. This dynasty is broken up into the Northern Dynasty and the Southern Dynasty. Each dynasty contained several opposing kingdoms. They constantly fought against one another. We shall look into some of the kingdoms and their contributions towards the Great Wall.
The Northern Wei (386 AD ~ 534 AD)
During the time of the Northern Wei, the attacks on the North was quite serious. In order to protect his land, the first emperor of the Northern Wei, Dao Wudi, defeated one of the tribes, Rouran. Then, he set six towns in three provinces. They are Wuchuan, Wubin, Huaishuo, Huaihuang, Rouxuan and Yuyi. In addition, he ordered for the construction and renovation for the Great Wall.
At the time of Ming Yuandi, the Rouran attacked China continually once more. He ordered for the construction of the wall from across the northern part of Shanxi Province and finally ended at the Shanxi province. (the two provincesí names are identical in English)
The Northern Qi (550 AD ~ 577 AD)
The countries in China were fighting against one another. Those countries near the North border of China also suffered the attacks from the tribes with the most severe from Rouran. The Great Wall built by the Northern Qi is the longest construction between the periods of Han Dynasty and Ming Dynasty.
Wen Xuandi, the first emperor of the Northern Qi, commanded his people to build the Great Wall twice in six years. The constructions of the wall stretched a long distance as the wall started from Shanxi Province and ended in Hebei Province. It is about 3000 li, or 1500km in length.
At the time of the Northern Qi, there came the term, the Outer and the Inner Great Wall. Another wall was built to the South of the original wall and became the inner layer of the Great Wall. This inner layer was completed at three different times. Wen Xuandi finished the western part of it, Wu Chengdi finished the middle portion while Houzhu did the Eastern part.
The Northern Zhou (557 AD ~ 581 AD)
During the reign of the last emperor of this kingdom, Jingdi, renovations of the Great Wall built by the Northern Qi were made. (the Northern Qi was conquered by the Northern Zhou earlier)
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