In 560 B.C. Croesus came to thrown in Lydia of Asia minor. In 546 B.C. Croesus marched over the river Halys against Cyrus. Cyrus came into control of Sardis, capitol of Lydia. Cyrus then captured Babylon. The son Darius led the Persian empire and created a royal road.
The great war between the Persians and the Greeks began with the revolt against Persia of the Ionian cities in 499 B.C. However well the Persians might rule, the Greeks just did not want to be ruled by foriegners.
Aristagoras persuaded the Persians to send an expedition to restore the aristocratic government on the island of Naxos, promising that it would be well worth there while in terms increased wealth and empire.
The expedition failed and Aristagoras was now in danger. His best hope lay in the Ionian revolt. He appealed to the Spartans as the leader of the Greeks to rescue the Ionian Greeks from slavery. He made a critical error the Spartans had no interest of going on a march from the sea. He did not give up yet trying to tempt Kleomenes with the increasing sums of money.
The original migration to Ionia had started out from Athens. Athens sent 20 ships and Eretria sent 5. These ships were the beginning of trouble both for the Greeks and the Persians. Ionians and allies marched inland Ephesos and captured Sardis, which accidentally was set on fire. Under increasing Persian pressure the Greeks withdrew. A sea battle brought the uprising to an end.
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