Each scene okayed by the director is redone by the assistants and inbetweeners. They put
details on the characters and make minor adjustments
in each scene. During clean-up, the frames are each being prepared for final
ANIMATION CHECK, XEROX, AND XEROX CHECK
Animation check is a stage in which each animation drawing of the scene is
reviewed against the exposure sheet and is approved as "Okay for Xerox."
Once a cleaned up scene has gotten an okay for Xeroxing, it is sent to the
Xerox Camera where it is transferred, in perfect registration, onto cels.
Cels are clear plastic sheets that carry each movement of the animated
Each Xeroxed cel is then checked against the appropriate drawing to make
sure all lines were transferred properly.
In this stage, the exact colors needed for each character and its
surrounding objects are established. The character and object colors are
decided based upon whether or not the color relates to the styling of each
After Xeroxing, all those animation drawings are sent to the Paint
Department. They are painted on the reverse side of the inked or Xeroxed
line in the colors that were earlier chosen by Color Models. (Traditionally,
the animation was inked onto the cels and hand-painted. Today, the companies
scan and color the artwork all on computer. This advancement has
undoubtedly accelerated the process.)
Each individual picture, in a finished film or cartoon, is made up of
several layers of characters and moving elements that are photographed in
front of a chosen background. Cels make it possible for the animator and the
viewers (us) to see every aspect of any particular scene; therefore, all
final drawings or paintings must be done on cels.
The final product, up to now, is reviewed during this stage in the precise
way it will appear for the camera. Taking it step by step, it is reviewed
against the exposure sheet to make sure that everything is in near perfect
order before sending it off to be produced for the last time.
CAMERA AND FINAL PRODUCTION
During this stage, the painted cels and their corresponding backgrounds are
photographed in color, frame by frame, onto motion picture film.
When the entire picture has been shot, processed, and color balanced, the
music score together with the dialogue and sound effect tracks are combined
with each other and the photographic image. Once again, computers are
capable of this and they help to save time and money.
Once the final film is complete, there are the finishing touches: package
design, promotional materials and marketing strategies. The animator may, at
this stage, give the finished film to a distribution company, or to a
client. He or she then is able to move on to the next idea...