|| Peter Roget presented his paper 'The persistence of vision with
regard to moving objects' to the British Royal Society.
|| Dr. Joseph Antoine Plateau and Dr. Simon Rittrer constructed a
machine called a phenakitstoscope. This machine produced an illusion of
movement by allowing a viewer to gaze at a rotating disk containing small
windows; behind the windows was another disk containing a sequence of
images. When the disks were rotated at the correct speed, the
synchronization of the windows with the images created an animated effect.
|| Eadweard Muybridge started his photographic gathering of animals in
|| Thomas Edison started his research work into motion pictures.
|| Thomas Edison announced his creation of the kinetoscope which
projected a 50ft length of film in approximately 13 seconds.
|| George Eastman began the manufacture of photographic film strips
using a nitro-cellulose base.
||Emile Renynaud, combining his earlier invention of the praxinoscope with a projector,
opens the Theatre Optique in the Musee Grevin. It displays an animation of images painted on long
strips of celluloid.
||Louis and Augustine Lumiere issued a patent for a device called a
cinematograph capable of projecting moving pictures.
||Thomas Armat designed the vitascope which projected the films of
Thomas Edison. This machine had a major influence on all sub-sequent
||J. Stuart Blackton made the first animated film which he called
"Humorous phases of funny faces." His method was to draw comical faces on a
blackboard and film them. He would stop the film, erase one face to draw
another, and then film the newly drawn face. The ‘stop-motion’ provided a
starting effect as the facial expressions changed be fore the viewer’s eyes.
|| In France Emile Cohl produced a film, Phantasmagorie which was the first depicting white figures on a black
|| Emile Cohl makes En Route the first paper cutout animation. This technique
saves time by not having to redraw each new cell, only reposition the paper.
||Winsor McCay produced an animation sequence using his comic strip
character "Little Nemo."
||Pat Sullivan created an American cartoon series called "Felix the
Cat." J.R. Bray devised "Colonel Heeza Liar," and Sidney Smith created "Old
||John R Bray applies for a patent on numerous techniques for animation. One of the most revolutionary being
the process of printing the backgrounds of the animation.
|| Winsor McCay produced a cartoon called "Gertie, The Trained Dinosaur"
which amazingly consisted of 10,000 drawings.
||Earl Hurd applies for a patent for the technique of drawing the animated portion of
an animation on a clear celluloid sheet and later photographing it with its matching
background. [Cel animation]
||The International Feature Syndicate released many titles including
"Silk Hat Harry","Bringing Up Father", and "Krazy Kat".
||The first feature-length animated film called
"El Apostol" is created in Argentina.
|| Walt and Roy Disney found Disney Brothers Cartoon Studio.
||Walt Disney extended Max Fleischer's technique of combining live
action with cartoon characters in the film "Alice's Wonderland".
||Warner Brothers released "The Jazz Singer" which introduced combined
sound and images.
||Walt Disney created the first cartoon with synchronized sound called
"Steam Boat Willy".
||The King of Jazz is produced by Universal. In it is a short animated sequence
done by Walter Lantz. It is the first animation done with the two strip technicolor
||Urb Irwek creates a multi-plane camera. This camera is capable of
filming several separate layers of cels giving the final frame a truly
three dimensional look.
||John and James Whitney produced "Five Abstract Film Exercises."
||Harry Smith produced animation by drawing directly onto film.
||John Whitney used 17 Bodine motors, 8 Selsyns, 9 different gear
units and 5 ball integrators to create analog computer graphics.
||John Whitney used differential gear mechanisms to create film and
television title sequences.
||Ken Knowlton, working at Bell Laboratories, started developing
computer techniques for producing animated movies.