First Aid for a Drowning Man
are several rules that are taken into a consideration when saving a drowning
man’s life. If the man is conscious, the rescuer approaches very carefully
because he might be grasped from the drowning man and pulled down under
water. In order to prevent such an accident, the approach is done from
behind and the drowning man is held in the so-called “sailor’s grip”. This
grip allows the rescuer to swim fast while holding the drowning man.
the drowning man is taken out of the water, he is laid with his feet higher
than his head. This helps the water go out of the lungs. The mouth is cleared
with the forefinger.
If the drowning man doesn’t
breathe, artificial respiration mouth-to mouth must be started. The head
is bent backwards in order to open the respiratory tract. The rescuer shuts
off the drowning person's nose and starts blowing air into the mouth.
If the artificial respiration
is done in the right way, the chest of the drowning person rises a few
centimeters. Five quick blows are made in the same way. The pulse is then
checked. If there is pulse, the artificial respiration should be continued.
there is no such, indirect heart massage is made. First, the rescuer kneels
down beside the unconscious man. With one hand, the first aider finds the
breastbone which is located between the two sections of ribs. The hand
is placed on the lower part of the breastbone and with a quick strike (not
too powerful because it might fracture the ribs), the breastbone is hit.
If the heart beat starts, the artificial respiration is continued. If it
does not, indirect heart massage is applied – one palm is put in the lower
third part of the breastbone; the other palm is placed on the top and with
straightened elbows short rhythmic pushes are made (70 per minute).
The first aider makes 15
pushes and 2 blows in the mouth. First Aid is done until the patient begins
to breathe and his heart starts to beat. If there are no such functions
after 30 minutes, First Aid should be discontinued.
First Aid for a Diver
this case, artificial respiration should start under water if possible.
If the rescuer has a breathing apparatus, he lifts the drowning man up
and puts the mouthpiece in his mouth. Air penetrates into the drowning
person’s lungs. Then, he is pulled down. Because of the difference in pressure,
the air is chased away from his lungs. When they reach the surface, they
take off all heavy equipment. The artificial respiration can be continued
mouth-to-mouth. Before that, however, the mouth should be cleared
from anything that can stop the flow of air.