The preparation of the diver
is done at special schools. The process begins with physical preparation
and then continues with underwater games. Here are the most important things
that a beginner should do to prepare himself.
The physical preparation
of an amateur diver comprises everyday morning exercises that last about
30 minutes. The diver does different exercises with weights and other types
of fitness equipment but an emphasis is put on sports activities such as
jogging and swimming. Taking a shower after training becomes an obligatory
procedure. In this way, the diver’s organism becomes more resistant to
overcooling. It is enough to prolong the stay under water by lowering
its temperature from 35°C in the beginning to 15°C at the end of
the preparation period.
Exercises for Body Strength and
Exercises for the Upper Limbs
Exercises for the Muscles of the Torso
inner and outer circles with
raising your arms forwards and
upwards with weights
raising your arms sidewards
and upwards with weights
raising a rod from a lying position
raising a rod
throwing a dense ball forward
to a particular distance
throwing a dense ball backwards
pushing out a dense ball forwards
stretching elastic cords with
both arms over the head and in front of the chest
stretching elastic cords with
one arm backwards and forwards
pull-ups with a ballast belt
Exercises for the Lower Limbs
raising your legs from a lying-on-the-back
bending forwards and then straightening
with a rod on the shoulders
Exercises for Endurance
crouching with a rod on the
crouching on one leg and then
vertical jumps with a rod
vertical jumps folding your
legs to reach your chest
peculiarity of these exercises is that they should be no longer than 60
to 90 seconds,
resting 45 to 90 seconds
between each two elements of the series. The intensity of the exercises
should be about 75 to 80% of the abilities of the organism. The number
of repetitions in the series depends on the person. Rest between the series
should be 8 to 12 minutes but it must be active (done by slow running for
Exercises for the Apnea
Special attention should
be paid to the training of the apnea, the diaphragm and the alimentary
tract. The diver should do the exercises according to his or her age, physical
There are two main kinds
of apnea: simple (performed in the air), and complex (performed under water).
The latter is divided into two types – passive and active. Passive apnea
is done while lying on the bottom, and the active one – while swimming
in the water.
Exercises for Simple Apnea
What you need for practice:
a ventilated room, a chair, a table and an empty stomach.
Exercises for Complex Apnea
The exercises for complex
apnea should be done in pools or in the sea. The complex passive apnea
is trained no more than 5 times. Then, the active apnea is trained by picking
objects from the bottom and by swimming horizontally under water.
Exercises for the Diaphragm and
the Alimentary Tract
The exercises for stimulating
the diaphragm and the alimentary tract are very important and useful because
they increase the apnea by 15%, improve movement abilities, and increase
the resistance to pressure changes while diving.
With your hands resting on the
waist, jump twice on toes and at the third jump spread out your legs. Do
this 16 times. Breathe rhythmically and exhale powerfully when stretching
out your legs.
Sit on your knees, put your
hands on the back of the neck, pull your elbows backwards. Exhale while
bending forwards (stand on your heels). Inhale before getting back to the
starting position. Do this 15 times.
down and straighten forward one leg. Draw a semicircle with it and do not
raise the heel from the floor. Do this 15 times. Exhale while moving the
leg backwards and inhale when returning it to the starting position.