The mask is a piece of equipment
used for better view under water. It has two main parts – a glass plate
and a rubber part, also known as a “cuff”. The cuff accommodates and adheres
to the forms of the face and prevents water from entering into the mask.
There are many models but here are the best:
apparatus (SCUBA) allows the diver to carry his breathing medium and work
underwater without assistance from the surface. There are three main kinds
of scuba – open-circuit, closed-circuit and semi-closed circuit scuba.
The open-circuit scuba consists
of a high-pressure cylinder which contains the breathing gas, a demand
regulator, which reduces the pressure of the gas coming from the cylinders
into the lungs of the diver, and straps or bands used for attaching the
scuba to the diver. The hoses and the mouthpieces carry the air from the
regulator to diver’s mouth. The exhaled air is released straight in water
forcing bubbles to form.
The breathing gas is stored
in a high-pressure cylinder from which it flows into the inhaling bag.
The amount of gas in the bag is controlled by a regulator. The exhaled
air is held in the exhalation bag and then it passes through the CO2 absorber
which removes it. The clean gas flows in the inhalation bag again ready
to be re-breathed. The closed-circuit scuba allows the diver to stay under
water for a longer period of time.
Semi-Closed-Circuit Mixed Gas Scuba
It works on the same principle
as the closed-circuit scuba. Here, the breathing medium is constantly flowing
and when the accumulated air becomes useless, it is released into the surrounding
The fins are used for helping
the diver swim fast and save energy. Their structure resembles the legs
of a frog. They are made of different kinds of rubber and plastics. There
are two main kinds of fins - for beginners and professionals. The former
are smaller, softer and more flexible. Swimming with them is easy but slow.
The latter type are bigger and harder. The have stiff restrictive gills.
Moving with them is difficult but fast. Most of the models are put on like
shoes but some are fastened to the feet with bands.
The snorkel is a piece of
equipment used for breathing when the diver is near the surface. It consists
of a plastic tube and a rubber mouthpiece. Its shape is hook-like. The
snorkel should match the following requirements:
the diameter of the tube should
be big enough to help easy breathing and narrow enough to facilitate the
blowing away of water which gets in it when the diver submerges; The most
widely-spread snorkels are 34 cm long and 60 mm in diameter.
it should have a bright
upper end which pops out above the surface and signals diver’s location
to his partners and the passing boats;
it should have a means of attachment
to the mask