Diving procedures can be
classified into four main groups according to:
Breath-hold (free) diving
This is the earliest form
of diving. Free divers from Korea and Japan used this technique to gather
mother-of-pearls from the sea floor. This type of diving employs a mask,
a snorkel and fins. The duration of each dive depends on the ability of
the individual to hold his breath as long as he can.
first deep diver in the history is said to be Yorgos Haggi Statti. He was
a sponge fisherman who was hired in 1911 by an Italian captain to find
the lost anchor of the ship. This small person, suffering from pulmonary
emphysema, to everyone’s surprise managed to dive three times to 77 meters
deep and complete the task.
This type of diving is performed
with a heavy-walled device such as bathyscaphe, bathysphere and submarine.
Another way of vessel diving is with the use of a self-contained armored
diving suit. The diver is restricted in his movements and he can only be
A long umbilical, coming
from the surface, delivers air to the diver’s regulator or mouth-piece.
The devices used in this type are diving bells, underwater habitats and
rigid-diving suits (“heavy-footers”).
Scuba Diving – diving with
a gas mixture carried by the diver, wearing an autonomous diving suit.
There are two main types of scuba apparatuses – open circuit (the exhaled
air goes into the water) and closed-circuit (exhaled air is rebreathed).
Saturation occurs when the
diver’s tissues have absorbed all the nitrogen that they can hold at a
specific depth. Saturation diving is essential for the scientist and the
working diver who want to spend weeks or months on the bottom in order
to complete their tasks. Divers stay in underwater habitats - pressure
vessels placed at up to 610 meters (2000 feet) depth.
Level of Proviciency
Professional divers receive
payment to dive for military, emergency and scientific purposes.
Recreational diving is done
by amateurs and it does not require specialized training (of course, a
basic course in scuba diving is needed). Depths of descending are up to
130 feet with compressed air in order to avoid decompression stops. Recreational
diving is always done with a buddy.
Diving for “on-lookers”
This type is done by amateurs
who dive not for profit but because of interest in this activity.
diving includes procedures such as Ice Diving, Wreck
Diving, and Cave Diving.