Architecture in telecommunications is the framework for multiple networks. They tie unlike
protocols together into a compatible whole. By comparison, the term design connotes
thinking that has less scope than architecture. Architecture is design, but most designs
are not architecture. A single component or a new function has a design that has to fit
within the overall architecture. Architecture is a term applied to both the process and
the outcome of specifying the overall structure, logical components, and the logical
interrelationships of a computer. In addition, architecture also refers to operating
systems and networks. Architecture has been around forquite some time now, and was
actually a very good solution to a problem people had with incompatible devices.
By the mid-1970s, IBM sold its customers various computer devices, including printers,
computers, and terminals, which communicated with each other via a variety of incompatible
protocols. As such, IBM developed architecture to tie in all the other protocols,
providing the means for these devices to transmit to each other. This particular
architecture is called SNA and is specific to IBM.
Open Systems Interconnection
Protocols & Architecture
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The Open Systems
Interconnection (OSI) was developed by the International Standards Organization (ISO) to
allow multiple vendors to communicate with each other. This architecture, as opposed to
the SNA, is an open architecture. OSI laid the foundation for the concept of open
communications among various devices, and has had a deep influence on communications
despite the fact that it has not been widely implemented. OSI has a basic concept of
layering, where each of its seven layers can be changed and developed without affecting
any other layer. This layered architecture developed by the OSI has been the basis for
both Local Area Networks (LANs) and the Internet.
Layer 1 of the OSI was the most basic layer. It defines the
interface, or plugs, and types of media (e.g. copper, wireless, fiber
As such, it is more commonly remembered to as the physical layer.
Layer 2 on the other hand is known as the data link area,
as they provide
rules for error control and gaining access to the network. Due to this,
LANs, or networks within corporations, conform to this layer.
Layer 3 is called the network layer. This layer has more
for addresses and also has a lot more error control than Layer 2. So, it is
generally the basis of a larger-scale communication, like between
different networks. The TCP/IP suite of protocol allows devices all over
the world to communicate with each other through a particular way. The
U.S. Department of Defense that developed the TCP/IP suite in the
1970s did not charge end-users for it in its basic format, and thus it
became simple to acquire. The availability of this standard, easily
accessible protocol, is actually one of the prime reasons for the spread
of the Internet.
In conclusion, protocols are similar to etiquette between alike computers. It spells out
the order in which computers take turns transmitting and how long computers should wait
before terminating a transmission. Protocols also handle error functions such as error
correction, error detection and file transmissions in a common manner so computes can
"talk" to each other. Architectures on the other hand are like the translating
devices which allows devices, and these protocols, to talk to each other effectively.