The Statue of Liberty
New York, New York
Originally called "Liberty Enlightening the World", this modern Colossus is located on the New York harbor. Its tremendous figure, symbolizing global freedom, is known worldwide. The beautiful Lady liberty is wearing flowing robes and a majestic crown. She holds a torch, high in her right hand, and a book inscribed "July 4, 1776" in the left. At her feet lie broken chains symbolizing the overthrow of tyranny in the new nation.
The well-known sculptor of France, Frederic Auguste Bartholdi was commissioned to design a spectacular sculpture to later become world famous. Bartholdi required the assistance of an engineer to address structural issues associated with designing such a colossal copper sculpture. Alexandre Gustave Eiffel (designer of the Eiffel Tower) was commissioned to design the massive iron pylon and secondary skeletal framework, which allows the statues copper skin to move independently yet stand upright. Bartholdi and the French were responsible for the statue itself and America was given the duty of building the pedestal. Because of lack of funds, Bartholdi wasn't able to finish the statue in time for the centennial celebration. The French used public fees, various forms of entertainment, and the lottery were forms of methods to raise funds. Meanwhile, back in America, funds were also shy, so Joseph Pulitzer (founder of the Pulitzer Prize) opened up a newspaper called "The World" to support the fund raising effort. But finally, it was finished.
The Statue of Liberty was given to America by the French in 1886 and has been a symbol for America ever since. It is located in New York City. It is also a welcome sign for immigrants. At the base of a statue there is a poem written by Emma Lazarus. It says "Give me your tired, your poor, Your huddle masses yearning to breath free, The wretched refuse of your teeming shore. Send these, the homeless, tempest-tost to me, I lift my lamp beside the golden door!" It was often the first thing that the immigrants saw when they arrived in America.
The Statue was completed, by sculptor Frèdèric Bartoldi in France, as a centennial gift, in July, 1884 and arrived in New York Harbor in June of 1885 on board the French frigate "Isere" which transported the Statue of Liberty from France to the United States. In transit, the Statue was reduced to 350 individual pieces and packed in 214 crates. The Statue was re-assembled on her new pedestal in four months time. On October 28th 1886, the dedication of the Statue of Liberty took place in front of thousands of spectators. She was a centennial gift ten years late.
|Height from the base to the torch||151' 1"||46.50m|
|Ground to the tip of the torch||305' 1"||92.99m|
|Heel to the top of the head||111' 1"||35.86m|
|Length of the hand||16' 5"||5.00m|
|Head: from the chin to the cranium||17' 3"||5.26m|
|Head thickness: from ear to ear||10'||3.05m|
|Distance across an eye||2' 6"||0.76m|
|Length of nose||4' 6"||1.48m|
|Length of right arm||12'||3.66m|
|Thickness of the waist||35'||10.67m|
|Width of the mouth||3'||0.91m|
|Length of the book||23' 7"||7.91m|
|Width of book||13' 7"||4.14m|
|Thickness of the book||2'||0.61m|
|Ground to the top of the pedestal||154'||46.71m|
|Weight of Copper in Statue||62,000 lb||31 tons|
|Weight of Steel used||250,000 lb||125 tons|
|Weight of Concrete foundation||54 million lb||27,000 tons|