T E Lawrence, The Seven Pillars of Wisdom
A A Milne: Winnie-the-pooh
8 Jan, Mecca: Arab leader Abdul Aziz ibn Saud as King of the Hejaz (later renamed Saudi Arabia)
12 Jan, Paris: serum to combat tetanus, by Pasteur Institute
18 Feb, Mexico: five ancient Mayan cities, by archaelogists
|Mussolini's Italian Revolution|
In 1926, Benito Mussolini turned Italy into a totalitarian (government in which the political authority exercises absolute and centralized control) state. This decision was largely hastened by four assassination attempts on Mussolini between April and October 1926.
The first three assassination attempts led to the shutting down of several opposition journals, the banning of the moderate Unitary Socialist Party, the overtaking of several independent newspapers, and a propaganda campaign against France. The fourth, however, led to Mussolini's seizure of absolute power.
Earlier, Mussolini had already declared 1926 Year One of his revolution. He had passed laws that banned freedom of expression and allowed him a free reign. He also replaced elected governments with his own handpicked officials.
Now, he abolished Parliament, replacing it with members from Fascist organizations. A special police force targeted at political opposition was established, and "revolutionary tribunals" judged such political offenders swiftly and secretly, without possibility of appeal. Finally, he introduced capital punishment (death sentences), for treason, insurrection, incitement to civil war, and attempted assassinations of the dictator or Royal family members.
Many approved of Mussolini's firmness, while others disliked the oppression but saw it as the only alternative to chaos. Anyhow, the Italians could only keep silent or risk the lives.