Milky Way, its size and shape, by US astronomer Harlow Shapley
The Gregorian calendar by Russia – a solar dating system introduced in 1582 by Pope Gregory XII, already used by most of the Western world
Britain: school leaving age from 10 to 14
|Great War Ends|
In the early hours of 11 November, 1918, in a railway carriage in the forest of Compiegne, a defeated Germany surrendered to the Allies. The Great War (World War I) had come to an end, two days after armistice (peace agreement) negotiations had begun.
The defeated Germans agreed to evacuate all territories occupied after 1 August 1914, to remove all military forces west of the Rhine river, and to release Allied prisoners. It also had to hand over 2500 heavy guns, 25,000 machine guns, 1700 airplanes, all its U-boats, 5000 trucks, 5000 locomotives and 150,000 wagons.
After so many years of fighting, only in the summer of 1918 came the crucial push towards an Allied victory. The Allies formed a blockade on Germany, causing Germany’s food and military supplies had been nearly exhausted; American troops also joined the Allied forces. Germany’s allies began to withdraw, Bulgaria on 30th September, Turkey a month later, and Austria on 3rd November. In Germany itself, internal revolts weakened its strength and finally the German Kaiser abdicated and fled into exile in Holland.
Related link: See The changing face of war