83?-30 BC). Marcus Antonias (Marc Antony) belonged to an old noble family of Rome. At the age of 25 he enlisted in the army and served in both Palestine and Egypt. Soon he became one Caesars most trusted lieutenants upon joining him in Gaul. Because of Caesar's authority, Antony was nominated to various public offices. Caesar promoted to him head of a division at the battle of Pharsalus. In 44 BC Caesar was assassinated. Immediately after Caesar's murder, Antony convinced the Romans to hunt down Caesar's assassins. He then proclaimed himself dictator. While Antony was away fighting the traitor Brutus, Octavian, Caesar's adopted son, swayed the Senate to rule in his favor and declare Mark Antony an enemy of the state. An army was ordered to march against Antony, and he was seized at Mutina. Antony escaped and banded with Lepidus, one of Caesar's former generals. Together they advanced on Rome. The frightened Octavian met with the pair and the three of them drew up their terms of agreement. They formed a triumvirate and distributed the Roman world among themselves. The three persisted to war against the murders of Caesar and in 42 BC completely conquered the republican forces at Philippi. Antony went on to Tarsus, where he commanded the presence of Queen Cleopatra to answer accusation that she assisted Caesar's attackers. When meeting her, however, he became enamored and accompanied her to Alexandria.
Antony was summoned back to Rome to handle domestic insurrections and petty territory squabbles. Antony married Octavia's sister because of political pressure. For several years he devoted himself to solving the problems of the empire, but in 34 BC he was again drawn back to Cleopatra. To prove his love toward Cleopatra and their two sons, Antony presented the queen with a substantial portion of Rome's Easter territories. In 32 BC, at Octavian demand, Rome withdrew support. and the Senate deprived Antony of his authority to govern his lands. After being deserted by his followers at the battle of Actium. he fled to Egypt. On hearing an untrue rumor of Cleopatra's death, Antony fell on his sword.