||The last Glacial Epochå
Siberia is shown during the last icing of the Quaternary Age (the beginning - about 115
thousand years ago, the end - about 10 thousand years ago): the climate, the Arctic
ice cover, flora and fauna and the Human.
Ice Age. Began from 1,5 up to 3,5 million years ago. Geologists name
this stage of the planet's history as the Quaternary Age. And sometimes it is named as
Anthropogene, of the Greek word "antropos", that means "the Human"
.This name appeared because just in this time on the Earth Mankind was developing. The
last Glacial Epoch is a part of the Ice Age.
Flora and fauna. Modifications in
the vegetative and the animal world of the Northern hemisphere during the last icing of
the Quaternary Age.
Rivers and lakes. Rivers and lakes
formation during the last icing of the Quaternary Age.
The Siberian Lake. The
West Siberian Lake, one of the largest ice lake in Eurasia during the last icing of the
The world ocean The world ocean
level depended on the formation of ice covers.
The last great glacier. Arctic ice
cover during the last icing of the Quaternary Age.
Holocene. The climate began to warm
and glaciers began to thaw 18-16 thousand years ago. The territory of Siberia was released
of ice 10 thousand years ago. Just this time the beginning of the new period became and it
suddenly changed the life of the Human and the Nature surrounded him.
There was the original bridge during the Ice Age
over which the plants, animals and Humans moved to the Northern America from Asia. This
bridge left under water about 10 thousand years ago, when glaciers thew.
First people appeared in the American continent between 70-12 thousand years ago.
Migrations of animals
Migrations of animals through Beringia happened at least during the last interglacial epoch.
Mammoths in America..
American mammoths died out in the end of
Pleistocene - the beginning of Holocene.
Moving of bisons to America ( they live there up to now ).
||The Mammoth Fauna
Very unusual kinds of animals lived in Siberia during the Ice Age. Many of them
already are not present on the Earth. A mammoth was the largest of them. All animals
living simultaneously with a mammoth are unifying by palaeontologers in the mammoth fauna complex (the
|Woolly rhinoceros Had
height 160-170 cm, body length over 3,5 m, weight up to 3 t.
Primeval bison. Had
height up to 2 m, body length 3 m, weight 2 - 2,5 t.
Cave bear. It was a
really giant. A large brown bear weighs 300-350 kgs, and a cave bear weighed 800-900 kgs.
Only his head’s length was more than half-meter.
Mammoth. He was a giant
of height up to 3,5 m. and weight 5-6 t.
The finds of mammoths
The map and notes about the most important finds of mammoths in Siberia.
The mammoth of Adams.
September, 1799, the right bank of the river Lena.
Mammoth from Berezovka.
August, 1900, on the bank of the river Berezovka in the northeast of
in the river Oyosh, running into the river Ob hardly to the north of Novosibirsk.
1970 the searching works began in the huge mammoth cemetery near the stream Berelekh in
The young mammoth Dima.
1977, about 40 thousand years ago in uppers of the river Kolima disaster
happened. Six-month young mammoth was beat off from herd.
The mammoth structure.
A mammoth, as well as all animals, consisted of bones, muscles, fat, skin
and various internal organs. And that all are of very large sizes.
The teeth structure.
Notes about teeth of mammoth.
The structure of mammoth tusks.
The structure of mammoth wool.
The structure of mammoth trunk.
Mammoth and the Human.
The history of mammoths and other animals of the Ice Age wonderfully is connected with the
life of the primeval Human.
The mammoths hunting.
Our far ancestors invented very artful methods of hunting these
House of bones.
Heavy bones and tusks of mammoths were used by primeval Humans for construction their
||The ancient Human
The first human appeared in Siberia 350-300 thousand years ago. Still by this time the
earliest finds of his living rests in caves of Altai dates. Scientists consider that the
first humans which came into Siberia, were the neanderthalens ( sapiens neanderthalensis) -
primitive hunters and gatherings.
|Wolf Mane. In the1967
archeological excavation began in Novosibirsk region on territory of the settlement
Ozerki., at the place, which the inhabitants named the Wolf Mane.
Buret. Found in 1936, it is the archeological memorial, extremely similar
to Malta, is placed on a right bank of the river Angara.
Venus from Buret. It
is one of the most known find in Siberia found in 1936.
Malta. Was found in 1928 in the river Belaya, is the most known
upper-palaeolithic monument in Siberia.
The tools. Notes about the tools of ancient humans, which were found in
Malta and Buret.
The art. One of the largest in Siberia and in the world collection of
primitive art was found in Malta.
The ancient calendar.
Many researchers consider, that the palaeolithic population of Siberia had precise idea
about the time.
Birds figurines. The series of birds sculptural images, which have been cut out
from a mammoth tusk, is very known.
Venuses. The series from 30 bone female figurines is the most significant
in the Malta collection
The interment ritual.
The stand Malta is the unique stand in Siberia, where the palaeolithic interment was found
Siberian aborigines. The
map and short notes about indigenous peoples of the modern Siberia.
||Faiths and Shamans
The world of Siberian peoples was occupied by many gods and spirits. According to
this ideas, an ancient spirits lived everywhere: in the sky and in the air, in the stone
and in the tree, in the water and in the ground. The natural elements, the animal and
vegetative worlds and, certainly, the Human were
submited to them.
In many places in Siberia the unusual images of people are found. As they were stopped in
the magic dance.
Shamanism. Not each person risked to
contact with the mighty spirits, but only some having secret forces and knowledge did
Modern Shamans. In the
end of 20-th – in the beginning of 30-th years of our century Siberian Shamanism
practically completely was destroyed. Only few, who live in the most remote areas,
continued the activity.
The Shaman tambourine. A
tambourine is the most significant Shaman instrument.
The dress. During the
rituals Shaman dressed in the special costume. It was very unusual.
How to become Shaman. Not
everybody can be the Shaman. It is considered, that nobody can to learn the shaman action,
it can be received only as a gift.
All photos available in our entry are placed in the
separate part. Each photo has brief comment. All photos are divided into the
Ancient animals. The places of excavations, reconstructed skeletons, parts of
The ancient Human.
Stands, tools, art and life objects.
Photos of Shamans, cult objects - the modern photos and photos of the beginning of our
Short notes about indigenous peoples of the modern Siberia
All maps, available in our entry, are placed in the separate part. Each map has brief comment.
Brief exposition of used terms and definitions
List of basic dates
In this section the test for checking your
knowledge in all our themes is placed. You should answer some questions and the
testing system will estimate your knowledge.