||Early Years of People's Republic of China (1949-1966)|
Establishment of People's Republic of China
In 1949, the People's Republic of China was established. Mao declared that China is against imperialism, feudalism, bureaucracy, and struggle for independence, democracy, peace and unity. The new government started reconstruction to fix such problems as the Inflation and low production. The Government first enforced land reform, improving the past feudal system. As a result, agriculture and industry became increased over the level to what it was before the war in 1950.
But on the Korean war which break out just after republic was established, a lot of Chinese sacrificed and suffered serious damage in their life. The relationship between USA got worse, China attained needed support from the Soviet Union.
Under the Korean War people's patriotism became strong, and the war effort took precedent over other affairs. In some cases however, many people plotted to return China back to the old system. Tension mounted to remove such people.
During this time, strength grew among the Three, Five Anti Campaign's and the bourgeois, and as a result the Communist party enforced programs to increase their power. Mao made various policies one after another to turn China into an ideal socialist nation.
In 1955, Mao promoted collective farming and nationalized commerce and industry, which had been private up until that point. Mao tried to make China communism society complete by every means.
In 1956, Mao called on the people in the CCP to state freely at Hundred Flowers (another program). But after one year he started Anti-Rightist Campaign, at which he oppressed men who had criticize him under Hundred Flowers program. Around this time his policy became to go on into a wrong direction. He wouldn't accept the opinion of other people, and his dogma became conspicuous. This
Anti-Rightist Campaign left deep scars on those who had believed Mao.
Mao attempted to level up commerce and industry in China to the level of advanced nations with promoting Great Leap Forward in 1958. Indeed he believed that China could accomplish it. Then he said this; " We will get ahead of Great Britain in fifteen years." He speed up production of iron and used peasants to do the work. The peasants dissolved farming, and implement iron.
The People's communes (another program) was also put into effect during this time-founded by Mao Zedong. Several thousand peasants abandoned their land and entered People's Commune. All peasants lived in cooperative environment and ate meals at common cafeteria. They had few personal belongings.
Production in the People's Commune was far from that before. Besides old men and children, no one was farming the countryside, and as a result, China found itself in an economic crisis-starvation. A great deal of peasants starved to death.
The Great Leap Forward ended in failure, and Mao and the CCP were questioned for their mistakes. Mao regarded any man who said the Great Leap Forward was bad, as a Capitalist, and labeled them a rightist. Thus conflict inside the ranks of the CCP was beginning to take place. Mao tried fighting off capitalism and feudalism through encouragement of socialism. He criticized literature and academics the most. This trend toward tyranny soon led to a terrible time in Chinese history-the Cultural Revolution (CR).