||Civil War (1945-1949)|
From 1937 to this day, the number of the dead in Chinese troop reached over one million, and over 10 million in civilian casualties. In Japan, only about 400 thousand troops died.
After the end of the War, Chang and Mao discussed national plans in Chongqing. The negotiations were slow. Especially the matters about unification of national troop, a local autonomy and establishment of constitution have not resolved. What was agreed was merely to avoid a civil war and establish new China of independent, liberated, and powerful. By that the CCP reduced the number of military hands, and made way toward its goal of avoiding a civil war
In January 1946, a military truce was arranged. An atmosphere for peace and unification was getting near. However, the Kuomintang didn't keep this truce, and started killing the opposition.
Start of Civil War
In the region of liberation under CCP, on the other hand, the people themselves blamed landowners who killed or oppressed the people during the past war and also put them on trial, sometimes executing them. Energy of the people was put to Land Reform. The progress of Land Reform made the people's eagerness for the revolution higher.
It also made the conflict with the Kuomintang, supported by landowners, even more critical. In danger of entering a civil war, the United States made an effort to intervene. But the intervention couldn't change Chang's will against crushing the CCP. At last a civil war started in July 1946.
Land Reform was promoted in countryside, while the confusion had already begun in cities. At the end of the war, soldiers and government officials came back to the cities. At first the people welcomed them enthusiastically. But the people were disappointed soon. The officials monopolized factories or stores Japanese people owned in the past.
Besides the government issued banknotes the moment the civil war started, so by the end of the war, inflation was getting out of control. Prices in 1947 were up to a hundred and fifty thousands times as much as that before civil war stated. The productivity decline more and more, and the number of people starving to death was over ten million just for one year in 1946.
China was in more chaos than in a time controlled by Japan and puppet regime. Disturbance and student movements occurred everywhere. Then the Kuomintang cracked down on the confusion, but at that time the people's trust for Kuomintang had been all but lost with their bad credibility.
Taiwan was made controlled under Japan for about fifty years from the Japanese victory in 1895. When the control of Japan was over with the end of the war, the people were all the more delighted. But Kuomintang act like a conqueror and had been oppressed the people. The people determined to fight against Kuomintang. They fought for human rights, but the Kuomintang arrested the leader and executed him. After that, Taiwan went under the control of the Kuomintang.
Victory of Communist
For the early one years of a civil war, the Kuomintang was dominant over the CCP. And Kuomintang occupied Yan'an, "capital" of CCP in March 1947. But it was just the consequence CCP predicted. The CCP had been prepared for a waiting game by getting the people's support. CCP had been able to find the people's favor by promoting Land Reform. The people supported the CCP. At last the People's Red Army began to counterattack Kuomintang scattered in various cities.
In January 1949 Chang resigned. In the negotiation for peace between the Kuomintang and CCP, CCP required Kuomintang to surrender unconditionally. But the Kuomintang refused to accept it. Taking this refusal, the People's Red Army started an all-out attack. They occupied big cities such as Nanjing or Shanghai, cornering Kuomintang in the south. And in December the People's Red Army occupied all main land except Taiwan. Chang fled into Taiwan with followed by five hundred thousand soldiers.
Finally CCP won a victory in the civil war by gaining the people's enthusiastic support.
"Without a doubt it is one of the most remarkable example that the more small but devoted and well-organized troop beat the troop which was the more larger but decline morale and not popular."