||The Reform by Zhou Enlai
After the fall of Lin, it was Zhou who controlled the Party's political work under the instruction of Mao. He made the greatest effort to modify the mistakes of the leftists and bring about a good opportunity to work in each field.
Liberation for the Veteran Bureaucrats
First, he liberated the veteran bureaucrats who had been persecuted by Qing and Lin, and re-appointed them. He had been protesting about their persecution in various ways since the CR started. And the occurrence of the Lin Biao affair changed Mao's attitude to the veteran bureaucrats. Zhou ordered People's Daily to publish an article about the Party's new policy about bureaucrats in April 1972.
In the article, he criticised sectionalism and said that veteran bureaucrats were the precious fortune of the Party. The article had a great influence, so a lot of veteran bureaucrats, specialists and professors were liberated from confinement, criticism, judgement and struggle. Consequently they were able to work again.
In this time, the honour of many top leaders was redeemed and a lot of leaders who had been forced to do manual labour in the countryside and robbed of their work were put back in their position as leaders again. Above all, it was the revival of Deng Xiaoping in March 1973, which had the greatest effect. Finally he returned to the political stage thanks to the efforts of Zhou and Mao's reconsideration.
Reform of Economy
Zhou was also making efforts to improve the national economy. First, from about 1972 he suggested the establishment of basic rules and systems and the reformation of companies in serious confusion. And he started to import technology and plants that had been interrupted for a long time. These measures increased China's productivity and became a great role for the improvement of its technological level. Consequently, the industrial output of 1972 increased by 6.6% compared with the previous year, and in 1973 it was 9.5% greater than in 1972.
And in the countryside, the reform also proceeded. In December 1973, the CCP gave instructions about the problem of distribution of the People's Communes. And detailed measures about individual income, the reduction of the peasant's burden, rationing and so on were decided. A lot of peasants and officers welcomed these. In 1972 output of production was not increased because of natural calamities, but that of 1973 was 8.4% greater than the previous year.
Visit of Nixon
In terms of foreign policy, great development was made. The CR had a serious impact on the international opinion of China and its diplomatic relations, but diplomatic relations between China and USA, Japan and the Western countries was improved and developed by the decisions of Mao and Zhou after the end of the Ninth Congress. In October 1973, China was given a formal seat in the United Nations. And in February in 1972, President Nixon visited China dramatically. On 27 February, China and USA announced a joint declaration in Shanghai and the eventual normalisation of diplomatic relations.
In September 1972, Japanese Minister, Kakuei Tanaka was invited by Zhou, and visited China. And on 29 September, diplomatic relations between China and Japan were restored formally. During twenty seven months, from the visit of Secretary of State Henry Kissinger to 1972, China established or restored diplomatic relations with forty-one countries such as Canada, Italy, Austria, Turkey, and so on. This improvement of its foreign relations destroyed the blockade of the West and the abnormal national isolation of China, and a basis for the development of new diplomatic structures was established.
Improvement by Zhou Enlai
During the two years after the fall of Lin, Qing's group was obstructive and destructive. But according to the proper measures of Zhou with Mao's support and the active work of many officers and the masses, social order and production were improved during the year of 1972 and 1973. These upturns were, however, interrupted and destroyed soon. The failure of the leftists was not corrected, the disaster of the CR continued to expand.