||Lin Biao Incident (Sept, 1972)|
Lin Biao Incident
Lin decided to kill Mao during his journey and carry out a coup d'etat after that. On the other hand, the CCP and Mao were on their guard against Lin's group, and took measures to defend themselves from them. Lin attempted to destroy the train that Mao was in and kill him by destroying the railroad or bombing it from an aeroplane at a small station in the suburbs of Shanghai. But having noticed a situation of danger, Mao took steps to deal with that properly, and he was able to stop the conspiracy of Lin.
Lin found the plan failed, while trying to establish a second government at Guangzhou in the south. But the police also noticed the plan, and Zhou Enlai took rapid measures. Lin, having found his conspiracy thwarted, took off in his aeroplane out of China not considering the lack of crew.
When Zhou heard that the aeroplane had taken off, he immediately informed Mao, and gave orders that no aeroplane should be allowed to take off anywhere in China. Mao decided not to stop the escape of Lin, and the aeroplane reached Mongolia. But it was forced to make an emergency crash landing after running out of fuel and it was burned on the ground. All the men of Lin's group were tried and killed. It was an empty ending for a man who had wielded power before.
Meaning of the Incident
This incident in which Lin, a high ranking leader in the CCP, had attempted conspiracy and planed a coup d'etat to kill a top leader had great significance. The rapid measures taken proved that the Party, the people and armed forces would not allow such incidents to occur. The destruction of Lin's group meant the victory of party and the people.
But tracing the root of such an incident, it can be seen as the result of basic rule of law, which survived during the Cultural Revolution. During five years in the Cultural Revolution, the party's leadership had weakened more than had ever been the case and democracy and law and order was destroyed. Battling for authority was justified, and the whole nation was driven into severe confusion. Such a situation allowed the formation and expansion of Lin's group, and permitted them persevere in a foolhardy plan. The people saw that Lin, who had done most to promote the Cult of the Individual, had planned to kill Mao, and the man who had been nominated as Mao's successor had betrayed his homeland to escape.
These incredible facts made the people start to harbour doubts. Was the Cultural Revolution necessary? What effect did the Cultural Revolution eventually have on the Party and nation? The people could not help thinking seriously about these doubts. This incident involving Lin urged many officers and to sober up the enthusiastic cult of the individual, and it made the doubts and dissatisfaction against the Cultural Revolution grow. In this sense, this incident became a turning point in the history of the Cultural Revolution.