|History of The Cultural Revolution
The Preface (1964-66)
The preface of the Cultural Revolution began when Mao Zedong and Jiang Qing started to
criticize intellectualism. This campaign influenced the Chinese, and soon it would spur
into a movement.
In 1966, the Cultural Revolution was formally started. Mao and Jiang organized students
called "Red Guards", using them to spread their ideology and theory on Socialism
around the country.
In 1967, the Cultural Revolution Authority including Jiang and Lin established a
Revolutionary Committee at Shanghai. In this way, China dropped into anarchy.
China in Chaos (1967)
A campaign of expressing traitors and revolutionary criticism campaign began. The members
of the CR Authority beat high ranking officials, using the Red Guards. One of the
important member in CCP, Liu Shoqi was also purged then.
Big battles among soldiers and the people occurred in Wuhan. The CR authorities encouraged
the people to battle the military authority of Wuhan. The people of Wuhan divided into a
group supporting the military authority and rebels supported by the Cultural Revolution
of Its Impact (1967,68)
The impact on the CR expanded various fields like the economy. Mao told the people to
neglect the CCP, further confusing the intentions of the Communist party.
against Liu Shoqi (Oct,1968)
During the Ninth congress, Liu Shoqi, the most obstacle to Mao, was criticized and removed
from the party permanently.
Considering the CR a victory, Mao had already been contemplating bringing the CR to an
end. However, Jiang and Lin, who had grasped allot of power, did not want the movement to
end. As a result, the CR program continued to destroy China.
The Period of
After the congress, following Mao's suggestion to implement, "battle, criticism and
reform" campaign, the program was carried out throughout China. With that, in each
field including economy, education and culture, values as a nation were reevaluated.
Jiang Qing and Lin Biao (1972)
The more power Jiang and Lin gained, the more both began to fear each other. The conflicts
between these escalated in 1972.
The Fall of Lin
Lin paused Mao's programs in public, but secretly wanted him out of the picture. He tried
to rob Mao of his power, but only failed. He tried to assassinate Mao, and upon being
caught, he fled to Mongolia. Before his plane could land however, it mysteriously crashed.
Aftermath of Lin Biao Incident (Oct,1972)
The death of Lin, who urged the CR positively, had a great impact on the people. Gradual
suspicion began to grow among the people.
Reform by Zhou
Normal authorities of the CCP including Zhou Enlai made an effort to normalize China,
after having been distracted and confused severely.
Congress and The Rise of Gang of Four (Oct,1973)
The Tenth Congress solved some problems, but continuing the CR was still called for. Under
such a false policy, the CR cannot help being continued more, and its destroys path
continued. Moreover, Qing Jiang, Zhang Chunqiao, Yao Wenyuan and Wang Hongwen formed
"Gang of Four", and their power grew tremendously.
Revival and Fall
of Deng Xiaoping (1975)
Deng recovered his power in 1975, and led China into economic recovery. However, his
policy contradicted that of the CR, so he was criticized by the Gang of Four, and he was
once again out of the party.
In 1976, Zhou Enlai died, and the people gathered to mourn his death. The Gang of
Four prevented the people from gathering in Tiananmen Square by using the military.
Aftermath of Tiananmen Incident (April,1976)
After the people were suppressed by the Gang of four in the Tiananmen Incident, the people
began to doubt the CR. More and more people called for the CR to end.
Death of Mao and
Fall of Gang of Four (Sept,1976)
Mao died in September, 1976. The CCP facing a crisis with their open activities decided to
arrest "Gang of Four". In October, "Gang of Four" was crushed, and
then the Cultural Revolution having shacked China for ten years was ended virtually.
Finally China began to step forward into a new history.