Soviet Union after the death of Stalin
The Soviet Union was the first socialist nation in the world, and its rating among the CCP
and the people were extremely high. In those days as the Republic was established, a
slogan such as "Today of the Soviet Union is the tomorrow of China" was often
displayed. The Soviet Union was certainly longing to deal with the Chinese people. But
after Stalin died, the situation began to change. Khrushchov, the first Secretary--General
exposed Stalin's evil deeds, and revealed his acts of terrorism. Basically he started to
openly criticize Stalin. That had a great impact on the Communist Party of each country,
consequently political upheavals occurred.
The external policy of the Soviet Union, which kept the status quo of Socialism, was
"Revisionism" for China, which needed to preceed the radical construction of
socialism in the country. Since his term in power, Mao had warned his government against
the Soviet Union. Mao did not believe in the Revisionist plan, and this caused for bitter
blood between China and the Soviets. Their relations deteriorated even more however, after
Khrushchev ridiculed the "Great Leap Forward" and the People's Commune. After
these comments, Mao no longer was no longer an ally of Khruchev.
In autumn 1960, while China was struggling with the confusion of "Great Leap
Forward" and other disasters, the Soviet Union notified China to withdraw technicians
sent from the Soviet Union, and to cancel economic and techniqal treaties
arbitrarily. With that, Mao's realization that the Soviet Union plans about Revisionism
were escalating. In 1962, Mao said, "Revisionism has a share in capitalism and
anti-revolution," and pointed out that "if we didn't carry out our class
struggle, we would become revisionists like the Soviets."
From 1963 to 1964, China and the Soviet developed political fray over the "line of
international communism campaign", which had a great impact on the world. The
disputed point was over the theory of "Marxism"; the core among these points was
"how to construct a socialist country". This problem was somewhat metaphysical
and concerned various factors. What can be said of Mao was that he understood the Soviet
intentions on "Revisionism and that he preached that this could happen in China if
they let it.
When Mao went forward with the Cultural Revolution, he criticized uncertain people, using
terms such as "revisionism" and "capitalism" actively to describe
their actions. To Mao, you were either a Socialist, or Capitalist Roader. However, Mao
never defined the meaning of "revisionism" clearly. This of course only added to
the confusion of the time, since it wasn't clear who the enemy was, or where it was.