This one of the most spectacular optical phenomenon in polar regions.
They were created by an interaction of solar wind and the earth’s
magnetic field. The charged particles from the sun enter the magnetic
field and are channelled towards the magnetic poles. The particles enter
the atmosphere in the ionosphere, at the latest 100km over ground, and let
the air particles lighting. The aurora lights violet, red or green,
depending on the chemical composition of this layer, and it moves in the
wind. Polar lights appear at the same time in the Arctic, there they are
called Aurora borealis (Northern Lights), and in Antarctica Aurora
australis (Southern Lights).
An 8-kilogram piece of
Mars found in Antarctica
are found all over the Earth. To date over 16,000 have been recovered and
new ones are being found daily. Since 1974, fourteen thousand of these
have been found in Antarctica. This is probably because they are easier to
spot against the ice. Many of these meteorites flow along with the
glaciers toward the sea, but thousands 'wash' up against barriers such as
mountain ridges where wind erodes the ice, just leaving the meteorites on
the surface. Antarctic meteorites date back to the earliest formation of
our Solar System and have been traced back to the Moon and even Mars.
There are literally bits and pieces of other planets just lying around
waiting to be picked up. Antarctic scientists have brought back rock
samples from other worlds at a billionth of the cost of any space program.
Mars is covered in craters which are the remnants of early impacts by
asteroids or perhaps even comets, and it was one of these collisions that
sprayed Martian rock across the inner Solar System. Around 13,000 years
ago, one such rock landed in Antarctica, where it was found in 1984. It
was soon verified as one of a dozen Mars rocks discovered on Earth.
Scientists believe that the rock fragment, which is about 4.5 billion
years old, was ejected from the surface of Mars when a comet or asteroid
struck the planet about 15 million years ago. Studying the meteorites from
the Antarctic ice has greatly increased our understanding of how planets