Typhoid fever is caused by Salmonella typhi, an important food pathogen.The cell walls of the bacteria contain powerful toxins that are released when the bacteria die.
Typhoid is spread through the fecal-oral route where bacteria spread through unproper water systems and contaminated food to people.T
Following a week after entry into the body, the bacteria start multiplying and are distributed throughout the body.Fever,weakness and pain can be felt.Then, lesions form inside the intestinal walls,High fever of 40 C,diarrhea,constipation and vomitting are experienced. Some patients eventually become carriers when the bacteria infect their gall-bladders and are a source of future outbreaks.
Antibiotics like chloramphenicol,ampicillin are used.Some bacteria ,however have developed resistance to the drugs and are difficult to treat.The course must be continued over a few weeks to kill all bacteria.Carriers must be treated for a few months.However,if that fails, thier gall bladders may have to be removed.
\Proper water treatment and sanitation are vital in preveting typhoid outbreaks.Known carrirs should not be employed as food handlers. An oral vaccine is available and is 50-70% effective in treating typhoid.
Recently, research has shown that cystic fibriosis patients may be born immune to the bacteria as their body has different cells in the gut which the bacteria cannot attach and cause infection.The website about this research is in the links.