The opposite of anthropocentrism is biocentrism. While anthropocentrism argues in favor of a world view centering solely around humans and only recognizes value in human beings, biocentrism feels that everything in nature has value.
In Respect for Nature, Peter Taylor described the fundamental points of biocentrism.
First, Taylor equates the status of human beings with that of animals. He argues that humans and animals share the earth, and should live equally and harmoniously.
Second, Taylor says that humans and other animal species are interdependent. This rejects the view that humans need animals, or that animals depend upon humans.
Third, every living creature is unique, and
lives in its own way for its own good, says Taylor. This implies that one species cannot know more about what is good for another species than that species itself.
Fourth, Taylor rejects the argument that human beings are inherently superior to animals.
The arguments that Taylor makes are integral to the philosophy of deep ecology.
Taylor's principles translate to three guidelines for human action. He says people must not harm any part of nature that has inherent value, try
to control or change natural ecosystems, or deceive any animal.
Put into practice, these ideas oppose hunting and fishing, and would call for vegetarianism.
Taylor diverges from some environmentalists by not placing value on non-living objects in nature.