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c. 350 BCE - Aristotle viewed sleep as, "an inhibition of sense perception" for "conservation." (1)
1729 - Jean Jacques d'Ortous deMairan, French Astronomer, experimented with plants and biological rhythms. He is thought to be the first to experiment with biological rhythms. (3)
1846 - Dr. Edward Binns published "The Anatomy of Sleep." (1)
1913 - Henri Pieron, French scientist, wrote, "Le Probleme Physiologique Du Sommeil," about the physiological aspects of sleep. (4)
1920s - Dr. Nathaniel Kleitman, "Father of American sleep research," explored circadian rhythms and sleep deprivation.
1929 - Hans Berger, German psychiatrist, attached electrodes to a scalp to find that brain waves were different during sleep than those during wakefulness. (2)
1930s - Instruments to measure brain activity were developed (1)
1935 - Harvard University researchers observed the different levels of brain activity during sleep and labeled the various stages. (2)
1930s - Frederic Bremer proved that cats produced EEG patterns of sleep produced in the forebrain. (1)
1940s - Walter Hess, Swiss physiologist, induced sleep upon animals by electrically stimulating the thalamus (1)
1940s - Robert Moore, University of Chicago - located the control center of the sleep-wake cycle, which is the suprachiasmatic nucleus , located in the hypothalamus. (1)
1950s - Gustav Kramer and Klaus Hoffmann proved the existance of a biological clock. (3)
1950s - Colin Pittendrigh experimented with circadian clocks & relation to temperature. (3)
1951-1953 - Dr. Nathaniel Kleitman and his studen,t Eugene Aserinsky, of University of Chicago, studied eye movements during sleep and discover REM sleep. (4)
1955-1957 - Dr. William C. Dement, student of Dr. Nathaniel Kleitman, defined the stages of sleep and 90 minute sleep cycles. (4, 6)
1958 - Dement explained sleep cycles in cats. This brought up the possibility that sleep research could be done with animals as well as humans. (4)
1959 - Michel Jouvet, U. of Lyon, France, described EEG signs of cerebral death. (9)
1960s - William Dement, of the U. of Chicago, found signals during REM sleep sent from the brain stem to the visual center of the cortex. (1)
1960s - Marcel Monnier of the U. of Basel in Switzerland, discovered delta sleep-inducing peptide (DSIP), a protein that, when injected into an animal, causes quick entrance into deep sleep and increase in total amount of REM sleep. (1)
1961 -Michel Jouvet - Demonstrated that physiological sleep is composed of two different states: Telencephalic sleep (slow wave sleep) and rhombencephalic sleep (paradoxical sleep) (9)
1962 - Siffre (France) started to experiment with circadian rhythms
by living underground for two months to eliminate outside factors such as light.
1962 - Aschoff and Wever, German researchers, studied humans in a sealed chamber to explore the effects of limited outside signals on human circadian rhythms. (5)
1965 - H. Gastaut, European, and colleagues, discovered apneas in sleep. (4)
1977 - Elio Lugaresi, researched Apnea with Coccagna, G. and Mantovani, M. Hypersomnia with Periodic Apneas Plenum Press. (9)
1977 - Belgian neuroscientist, 85 year old Frédéric Bremer, " wrote his famous 'Editorial Review on Cerebral Hypnogenic Centers." where he suggested that sleep could result from a chain of disinhibitory and inhibitory processes ending in deactivation of the brainstem arousal system. The prime mover of this positive feedback mechanism would be the slackening of reticular tonic activity' ". (11)
1979 - Allan Rechtshaffen,, U. of Chicago, co-founded with William Dement, the Association for Psycholophysiological Study of Sleep (now the Sleep Research Society). President of the Society from 1979-82. (9)
1980s - James Krueger of U. of Tennessee identified "factor-S," a chemical which John Pappenheimer of Harvard University discovered produced deep sleep when injected into animals, as muramyl peptide. This substance is produced by the immune system. (1)
Krueger then worked with muramyl dipeptide (MDP), which also induced NREM sleep, as well as raising the body temperature. He found that MDP is involved in the making of cytokines , which are compounds related to the immune system. Some of these compounds affect sleep. (1)
1986 - Elio Lugaresi, U. of Bologna Italy - described Fatal Familial Insomnia. (9)
1987 - Founding of the World Federation of Sleep Research Societies.
1990's - Sleep professional, non-profit, medical, educational, and commercial organizations proliferate and research expands. Many develop outreach efforts or extensive marketing and awareness of research spreads. Several websites are developed to facilitate sharing of professional and medical research, either at the collaborative phase or through eduational and public awareness aspects.
1991 - Michel Jouvet, Lyon, France, became Honorary President, Founding Congress of the World Federation of Sleep Research Societies. First International ("Founding Congress") was held in Cannes, France September 21-25, 1991. (9)
1992 - WiSRR, the Women in Sleep and Rhythm Research,is founded at the Association of Professional Sleep Societies Congress, beginning as an informal forum and e-mail discussion group, "to provide communication and mentorship between women scientists and students."(13)
1993 - National Center for Sleep Disorders Research established within the U.S. National Institutes of Health's National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute for the functions of research, training, technology transfer, and coordination of sleep research for the United States government among agencies and with the private and nonprofit sectors. Government funding seeks to encourage collaborative and cooperating efforts and to affect the direction of future research as suggested through an Advisory Board.
Second International Congress of WSFRS. "The Mystery of Sleep, " Nassau, The Bahamas, Sept. 12-16, 1995.
1997-1998 Dr. Pierre Maquet and the University of Liege, Belgium pioneered "the application of PET to normal and disturbed sleep. The images which he presents and explains in [an] article [in the WFSRS newsletter online] are both scientifically novel and beautiful. "Functional Neuroimaging of Normal Human Sleep Introduction During the last 2 years." There have been several reports on functional neuroanatomy of normal human sleep (Andersson et al., 1998; Braun et al., 1997; Hofle et al., 1997; Maquet et al., 1997, 1990, 1996; Nofzinger et al., 1997). All of them used positron emission tomography (PET) and statistical parametric mapping (SPM); most of them measured cerebral blood flow (CBF). This has been a substantial change from the traditional EEGs, which are still used, but not exclusively, for sleep research..
1999 - Dement published The Promise of Sleep:a pioneer in Sleep Medicine Explains the Vital Connection Between Health, Happiness, and a Good Night's Sleep. 447 p. (Online reviews available at www.amazon.com).
1999 - (Aug. 5) Stanford U. Emmanuel Mignot and colleagues identified a gene linked to narcolepsy in research involving dogs but yielding significant clues for human narcolepsy.(7)
1999 - (Aug. 12) The National Sleep Foundation announced that natural human biological clocks may prefer sleeping from midnight to 0600 (or 6 A.M.) and then again from 1400 to 1600 hours (2 P.M. to 4 P.M.) (8)
Forthcoming Oct. 1999 - The World Federation of Sleep Research Societies plans "The Function and Functional Significance of Sleep," Third International Conference, Dresden, Germany (5)
(1) Edelson, Edward. Sleep. New York, Chelsea House, 1992. p. 14, 48-51, 63
(2) Maas, James B. Power Sleep: the revolutionary progam that prepares your mind for peak performance. New York: Villard, 1998. p. 23
(3) "Historical Background." CBT Biological Clock Tutorial. http://www.cbt.virginia.edu/tutorial/HISTBACK.shtml
(4) "A Brief History of Sleep Research." February 3, 1999. URL: http://www.stanford.edu/~dement/history.shtml
(5) Strogatz, Steven H. "The Mathematical Structure of the Human Sleep-Wake Cycle." Lecture Notes in Biomathematics 69 (Managing Editor: S. Levin). Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1986. p. 9-10.
(6) Dement, William C. The SleepWatchers. Stanord, CA. Stanford Alumni Association, 1992.
(7)Stanford University press release, Aug. 5, 1999.
(8)Radio news, WTOP, heard Aug. 12, 1999, c. 8 a.m.
(9). Newsletter, World Federation of Sleep Research Societies, v. 6, no. 1, 1998.
Michel Jouvet, biography http://www.wfsrs.org/newsletters/NewsletterS_E/michelbio.html
Elio Lugaresi, biography..http://www.wfsrs.org/newsletters/NewsletterS_E/eliobio.html
Allan Rechtshaffen http://www.wfsrs.org/newsletters/NewsletterS_E/allanbio.html
Dr. Pierre Maquet and his group from the University of Liege in Belgium belong to the pioneers in the application of PET to normal and disturbed sleep. The images which he presents and explains in the following article are both scientifically novel and beautiful. Functional Neuroimaging of Normal Human Sleep Introduction During the last 2 years, there have been several reports on functional neuroanatomy of normal human sleep (Andersson et al., 1998; Braun et al., 1997; Hofle et al., 1997; Maquet et al., 1997, 1990, 1996; Nofzinger et al., 1997). All of them used positron emission tomography (PET) and statistical parametric mapping (SPM); most of them measured cerebral blood flow (CBF).
(11) Lavie, Paretz. "Historical perspective: sleep research," WSFRS newsletter, v. 6, no. 2, Jan. 1999.
(12) To learn more about tomorrow's history, See also our "Sleep in the News" section. To track research progress, subscribe to NAPS, a free, current e-mail alerting service provided by websciences.org.
New Abstracts and Papers in Sleep "NAPS is a free weekly Current Alerting Service for the sleep field. Subscribers to NAPS receive, each week, an E-mail Alert of new citations in their specific Areas of Interest." NAPS Archives contains all sleep and sleep-related papers for the current year. A search engine is available for searching by author, category, or keyword,Author abstracts, Archival cumulation of the current year's literature in sleep; reprint request forms are available, Notification of topical information pertaining to your Areas of Interest. To sign up, proceed to: http://www.websciences.org/naps/alert/naps.htm
(13) Women in Sleep and Rhythm Research web site at URL: http://bisleep.medsch.ucla.edu/WiSRR As of Feb. 5, 1999.[an error occurred while processing this directive]