[an error occurred while processing this directive] Interpretations of Dreams: Psychology
Theories of Dreams (1)
Freudian Theory of Dreams - Sigmund Freud published, "The Interpretation of Dreams," in 1900, explaining that dreams reveal unconscious worries and desires.
Activation-Synthesis Theory - In 1977, J. Allan Hobson and Robert McCarley of Harvard Medical School proposed that dreaming was the brain's attempt to respond to stimuli that are being received. This theory was based on the findings of Dement in the 1960's that the brain stem sends messages to the visual center of the cortex during REM sleep, as it does during wakefulness. Since the person is asleep and cannot respond normally, the result is a dream.
Neural Garbage Collection - In 1983, Francics Crick of the Salk Institute in California and Graeme Mitchison of Cambridge University in England proposed that dreaming was the process of discarding unwanted memories. They reasoned that the signals sent to the cortex wiped out unneeded information.
Theta Rhythm - Jonathan Winson of Rockefeller University in New York proposed that dreaming allows the brain to process daily experiences and apply them in "an ongoing strategy for behavior." (2). His reasoning for this theory is based on theta rhythms, brain waves with a frequency of about 6 cycles per second. Humans do not produce theta rhythms (which are different from theta waves). Many animals, however, do produce these waves during REM sleep, times of crisis (such as being hunted), or when performing an essential task (such as hunting).
Sentinel Hypothesis (3)- This theory predicts that while dreaming, the brain scans its environment in case of danger. The external stimuli gathered are incorporated into the dream.
See also: previous ThinkQuest (and TQ Jr.) DREAM entries. (4)
(1) Sleep (Encycl.) pp. 62-64
(2) Sleep (Encycl.) pp. 68-70
(3) Wide awake at 3:00 am, p. 118
(4) Previous ThinkQuest and ThinkQuest JR. entries on Dreams:
Dreams and Dreaming. By Brandan Schulze, Chad Peterson, Jadey Thomas. Includes sections on Dream history, why we dream, dream recall and interpretation, dream journal, lucid dreaming, sleep mechanics (focusing on dream cycles and hypnagogic state), and more. /11189
Dreams: an exploration into the subconscious. By Rachel Sanchez-and Nasser Salim. Includes social aspects, gender differences, interpretation of dreams, an interactive research project on dream interpretation, and a few pages on "Dream science." /17039/
Dreams: A History and Interpretation of Symbolism in Dreams. By Erich, Michael,and Susan [Last names not given]. This includes a listing of possible interpretations of specific common symbos found in dreams, and has a questionnaire designed to help the user interpret dreams. /11130
TQ JR., 1999 entries:
In your Dreams. By Oren, Caroline, Mark, Maggie, and Frederick [last names not given].. Includes an inteview with a dream specialist and a section on nightmares and night terrors. http://tqjunior.advanced.org/5698
Dreams, by Arturo, Ashley, Sam, Soumya, Will, and Zack [last names not given] http://tqjunior.advanced.org/5865[an error occurred while processing this directive]