| About Mariner
The Mariner spacecrafts were the second of a series of spacecraft used for planetary exploration in the flyby, or nonlanding, mode and the first spacecraft to successfully encounter another planet. Mariner 2 was a backup for the Mariner 1 mission which failed shortly after launch to Venus. The objective of the Mariner 2 mission was to fly by Venus and return data on the planet's atmosphere, magnetic field, charged particle environment, and mass. It also made measurements of the interplanetary medium during its cruise to Venus and after the flyby. Later missions went to Mars, Venus, and Mercury.
| Mariner Missions
- Mariner 1: Attempted Venus flyby, 1962, destroyed shortly after launch when vehicle veered off course.
- Mariner 2: Venus flyby, 1962.
- Mariner 3: Attempted Mars flyby, 1964, transmissions ceased 9 hours after launch, spacecraft entered solar orbit.
- Mariner 4: Mars flyby, 1964-1965.
- Mariner 5: Venus flyby, 1967.
- Mariner 6: Mars flyby, 1969.
- Mariner 7: Mars flyby, 1969.
- Mariner 8: Attempted Mars orbiter, 1971, Centaur stage malfunctioned shortly after launch.
- Mariner 9: Mars orbiter, 1971.
- Mariner 10: Venus/Mercury flyby, 1973-1975.