Through the history of Afghanistan many peoples and cultures have migrated into the country, bringing different ways of life and governments. Over time, Afghanistan became highly dependent upon agriculture, and its primarily Islamic people established ways of irrigation that became the life-source for Afghanistan.
The Mongols swept through Afghanistan in the 1200 and 1300s, destroying many of Afghanistan's growing achievements.
Afghanistan was established by the Pushtun people as an independent kingdom for the first time in 1747. However, the Afghans became caught in the middle of two growing forces: the British Empire, which was spreading into India, and the Russian Empire which was spreading throughout Asia as czars expanded their power and control. But the Afghans remained independent, and fought to keep their autonomy. Two wars were fought, but in the 19th century, Britain took control over Afghanistan's foreign affairs. For the next forty years Afghanistan was a "buffer state", serving both British-controlled India and Russia. By 1919, Afghanistan had again reclaimed independence.
Communism Sweeps Through, & the Soviets Invade
Russia and the Communist Soviets were to play a big role in the future of Afghanistan. Starting after World War II, there was a disagreement over borders between Afghanistan and Pakistan, which resulted in Pakistan refusing to import goods to Afghanistan. Then, in turn, Afghanistan initiated diplomacy with their northern neighbor: the Communist USSR. The government of Russia was to play an incredible part in the future of Afghanistan, by leading to years of war.
Afghanistan remained a monarchical kingdom until 1973 when a military rebellion toppled the monarchy. The leader of this coup became president, but was later killed during another coup in 1978. The government became leftist, and signed a peace treaty with the Soviet Union. The scene was set for the invasion of communism. The people felt this new way of government interfered with personal family lives. The Soviet Union continued to influence the government, and gave Afghan's, now communist, government aid, by sending military arms. But the people continued to rebel. By December of 1979, thousands of Soviet troops entered Afghanistan. This would have an influence for years to come. They came intending to stop the rebellion, but they left a mark that would never be erased. This would aclimate years of war, as the Soviet troops implemented Marxism and communism throughout Afghanistan. A flame was lit that would devour Afghanistan and its people for the next two decades.
The next few years brought more rebellion and war. In 1989, Soviet troops left Afghanistan, but they had left the mark of communism, that would bring years of war, conflict, and excessive executions by the government.
---->On to Afghanistan's Past Decade