Generations of Clones
Wakayama injected only the nucleus of an adult cumulus cell into an enucleated egg. Then, he let the sit in a suspended state for about six hours before stimulating with a chemical bath to start dividing. The embryos were transferred to surrogate mothers once they reached the blastocyst stage. Wakayama's results were amazing. His cloning success rate was about three in every 100 attempts, much better than Wilmut's one in 277. Then Wakayama, working with other scientists at the University of Hawaii began to make clones of his clones. At the time of the announcement of his research, Wakayama had produced three generations of genetically identical mice, an organism which has proven to be one of the hardest to clone. Wakayama's cloning process is now called the Honolulu Technique, and has been licensed by Probio America, Inc.
Due to the reliability of Wakayama's technique, it is expected that it will be employed in the creation of transgenic cattle, livestock genetically altered to produce human proteins and useful drugs. Also, due to the short gestation period of mice, it is believed scientists will be able to use the Honolulu Technique to more easily study the activation and deactivation of genes during development.