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Xi'an is one of the most famous ancient capitals in China.It has been capital city of several dynasties in history.The world-famous Mausoleum of the First Emperor of' the Chin Dynasty and the Terra-cotta Warriors and Horses is just in Xi'an and it is called "the 8th wonder in the world".Many foreign tourists say that not having been to Xi'an means not having been to China;not having been to Mausoleum of the First Emperor of' the Chin Dynasty and the Terra-cotta Warriors and Horses means not having been to Xi'an.After a long time underground,it has been shown to the whole world.All of Chinese feel proud of it.
Xi'an is one of the human civilization cradles in the world.There were "Lantian ape men" over 1 million years ago,"Dali men" over 200,000 years ago, "Banpo men" over 6000 years ago.From Xizhou dynasty in 11th century BC,there have been over 10 dynasties who chose Xi'an as its capital.During these more than 1000 years,it has created and accumulated effulgent civilization of ancient times.
During Warring States,the emperor Shi Huangdi chose Xianyang(=Xi'an) as the capital.He consolidated characters,coin and metrology and he also created a new country.After that,he ordered lots of builders to build mausoleum for him.The whole project lasted 40 years.More than 700,000 builders worked on this project and the mausoleum covered 250,000 square meters.To the east of the mausoleum about 1.5 kilometers,it was the pit of the Terra-cotta Warriors and Horses which is "the 8th wonder in the world".
There are 3 pits and No.1&No.2 pits have been shown to the tourists.
Pit No.1 is rectangular in shape, 230 meters long and 62 meters wide. There are five doorways and a long aside on each side. Between the two aisles are nine corridors running from north to south, Separated by walls made of rammed earth.
There is a rectangular formation of chariot soldiers and infantry soldiers with the former as the main body. On each side of the pit a row of warriors were placed facing outside. They are presumed to be the flank guards and backguards. The warriors in the three rows on eastern side are considered the vanguard. In the nine corridors, chariots soldiers and infantrymen were placed in alternate lines, forming the main body of the huge battle formation. In each corridor, there are four rows of warriors, some in battle robes, other with armor. Chariot are placed between the warriors, each followed by a charioteer and two chariots soldiers.
The front five corridors, covering an area of 2000 sq. meters, including 1087 terracotta figures, 8 battle chariots and 32 horses are now on display. It is estimated that as many as 6000 terracotta figures and more than 180 chariot horses will be found in Pit No.1 when the pit is completely excavated.
Pit No. 2 is L-shaped, covering an area of 6000 sqm. it is formed by 4 sections: first, the eastern end, in which are 172 archers in kneeling position along the corridors in the middle; second, the southern part, formed by eight corridors in each row followed by two to four chariot soliders(No infantrymen are found here), third, the central part in which three rows of chariots are placed in three corridors, six chariots in each row, each followed by infantry soldiers and cavalrymen, forming a battle formation of chriots, infantrymen and cavalrymen; fourth, the L-shaped northern part. In its three corridors, there are two battle chariots placed in the east, followed by eight teams of cavalrymen, each team being arranged in four rows. These four sections are both independent from and closely connected with each other. Differrent kinds of soldiers are combined to form one integrated battle formation. which can also be described as an independent formation composed of four smaller ones.
Pit No. 2 is estimated to house 1300 warriors of different kinds, 89 battle horses, 356 chariot horses and 100 saddled horses.
Pit No. 3 is in the shape of a Chinese character, covering an area of 520 sq meters, Unearthed here are one battle chariot, four chariot horse and 68 warrior figures, The warriors in this pit were arranged face to face, suggesting that Pit No. 3 is the command headquarter of the Qin terracotta amrmy.