Climate and Natural Resources
The year-round temperature in Nubia can vary wildly. During the warm months, from May to September, temperatures
during the day often reach 100 degrees Fahrenheit. During the remainder of the year, overnight temperatures may drop
close to freezing. The northern half of Nubia, north of Dongola, seldom sees any appreciable rain. South of Dongola
there is a rain season in July and August. Annual precipitation at Khartoum, where the White and Blue Niles join,
averages about 7 inches.
Though severe rainfall is not a disturbance, the prevailing winds can cause problems with agriculture fields and villages. Year-round the winds blow from the north. Because the current of the river flows in the opposite direction, the winds make it possible to navigate the Nile in both directions with ease.
These climactic conditions were probably unpleasant at times, but agriculture fields usually yielded enough food to support the Nubian's. In ancient times, however, the Nubian landscape became well known for other, more exotic resources that attracted the attention of neighboring countries, particularly Egypt. Materials commonly exported from or through Nubia were gold, ivory, and ebony. Some of these materials actually originated in areas south of Nubia, so Nubia served as a corridor for trade. Sometimes the Egyptians controlled this trade, so it was only when the Nubian's were able to serve as middlemen that Nubia itself profited from these resources.