Socialism, democracy and secularism, the three basic principles of our constitution have been adequately reflected in all its salient features.
At the head of the Union is President who is elected for 5 years by the members of two houses of the parliament - Rajya Sabha and the Lok Sabha and the legislative assemblies functioning in the states. The Vice Presidents chosen by the members of the two houses of Parliament. These members are elected directly to the Lok Sabha and indirectly to the Rajya Sabha from territorial constituencies in the States. The legislative assemblies in the States have also only elected members. In some states, there is provision for a second house - The Legislative council - whose members are elected by electorates constituted on specific basis.
The executive authority, both at the centre and
in the States, rests with the Councils of Ministers which are headed by
the Prime Minister and the Chief Minister respectively. In the states,
the governors appointed by the president of India, are the executive heads.