Chemicals of Life
Their main role is to be an easy accessable source of energy. They are grouped according to their size and complexity, and include :Monosaccharides - Least Complex
"mono" means one, so it bascially means 1 sugar. Its formula is shown below, and "n" is the number of carbon atoms in this molecule.
The most common monosac. is called the hextose sugar, and it has 6 carbon atoms. Glucose is a hextose sugar. The shape of the hextose sugar is very important, and can be related to the other types of carbohydates as well.Features - A ring structure made of 5 carbon, and 1 oxygen atom.
There are some varients of hextose sugars, that aren’t glucose. They differ only in that some of the branches have different elements at their ends. For example, fructose is the same as glucose, except that its CH2OH is swapped with the H in position 1. These different forms are called isomers – a different positioning of atoms in a molecule.
Examples of monosaccarides are : Glucose & Fructose &
Monosaccarides are soluble, sweet and form crystals.
Disaccarides are built up from monosaccarides.
This is 2 monosaccarides joined together. Because "di" means 2. The interesting thing(and the thing we get examined on) is the process where they join to form a disaccaride. The formula for a disaccaride is:
Maltose - the combination of 2 glucose molecules.
Sucrose - the combination of glucose and fructose. Very common in plants. Found in sweets.
Lactose - the combination of glucose and galactose. It is the sugar found in milk.
The reverse process, where disaccarides split, to form 2 monosaccarides is called hydolysis, and water is needed to be added for this to occur.
It is found in plants, and consists of two sorts of molecules – amylose and amylopectin. It is made up of a long chain of glucose units, and the chain is coiled in a helix pattern.