Chemicals of Life
Thinkquest Team 22016
CarbohydratesCarbohydrates are made of only :
Their main role is to be an easy accessable source of energy. They are grouped according to their size and complexity, and include :Monosaccharides - Least Complex
Polysaccharides - Most Complex
"mono" means one, so it bascially means 1 sugar. Its formula is shown below, and "n" is the number of carbon atoms in this molecule.
The most common monosac. is called the hextose sugar, and it has 6 carbon atoms. Glucose is a hextose sugar. The shape of the hextose sugar is very important, and can be related to the other types of carbohydates as well.
These are branches off the main structure. Branches of H, OH(hydroxyl), and 1 CH2OH(alcohol).
Its carbon atoms must be numbered 1-6 in a clockwise direction, starting at the extreme right
There are some varients of hextose sugars, that aren’t glucose. They differ only in that some of the branches have different elements at their ends. For example, fructose is the same as glucose, except that its CH2OH is swapped with the H in position 1. These different forms are called isomers – a different positioning of atoms in a molecule.
monosaccarides are : Glucose & Fructose & Galactose.
This is 2 monosaccarides joined together. Because "di" means 2. The interesting thing(and the thing we get examined on) is the process where they join to form a disaccaride. The formula for a disaccaride is:
When the 2 monosaccarides join, water is released, and a glycosidic link formed between the two(a covalent bond). This loose of water is called condensation.
Maltose - the combination of 2 glucose molecules.
The reverse process, where disaccarides split, to form 2 monosaccarides is called hydolysis, and water is needed to be added for this to occur.
Starch, glycogen & cellulose are all polysaccarides.
It is found in plants, and consists of two sorts of molecules – amylose and amylopectin. It is made up of a long chain of glucose units, and the chain is coiled in a helix pattern.