- acceleration of gravity. the gravitational acceleration of a freely
falling object, expressed in terms of the rate of increase of velocity per second: on
earth 980.665 cm (32.l7 ft.) per second per second is the standard
- avalanche. a mass of loosened snow, earth, rocks, etc. suddenly and
swiftly sliding down a mountain, often growing as it descends
- basalt. a dark, tough, fine-grained to dense, extrusive volcanic rock
commonly occurring in sheetlike lava flows
- black spots. dots on the Sun generating a lot of energy considered to
warm climate and cause El nino
- blizzard. a severe snowstorm characterized by cold temperatures and
heavy drifting of snow
- caldera. large, basinlike depression formed by the collapse of an
overlying volcanic cone.
- Cartesian coordinates. a pair of numbers that locate a point in a plane
by its distances from two fixed, intersecting, usually perpendicular lines in the same
- cinder cone volcano. Conical, usually highly symmetrical hill of
- concave. hollow and curved like the inside of a bowl
- conical. resembling or shaped like a cone
- crater. Depression resulting from volcanic collapse or violent
explosion, or by gradual erosion.
- crust. the solid, rocky outer portion or shell of the earth;
- dike or dike swarms. tabular body or bodies of molten rock injected
into a fissure.
- drought. a prolonged period of dry weather; lack of rain
- earthquake. a shaking or trembling of the crust of the earth, caused by
underground volcanic forces or by breaking and shifting of rock beneath the surface
- El-nino. a warm inshore current annually flowing south along the coast
of Ecuador and, about every seven to ten years, extending down the coast of Peru, where it
has a devastating effect (El Nino Effect) on weather, crops, fish, etc.
- ENSO El nino Southern Oscillation
- ITCZ Inter Tropical Convergence Zone
- lahar. debris flows of volcanic materials that often accompany or
follow a volcanic eruption.
- lava. fluid rock that issues from a volcano or fissure and is composed
primarily of basalt, andesite, or rhyolite rock.
- leyden jar. a condenser for static electricity, consisting of a glass
jar with a coat of tinfoil outside and inside and a metal rod connecting with the inner
lining and passing through the lid
- lightning. a flash of light in the sky caused by the discharge of
atmospheric electricity from one cloud to another or between a cloud and the earth
- magma. molten rock within the Earth.
- mantle. layer of the earth's interior between the crust and the core
- molten. melted or liquefied by heat
- mudflow. a massive movement of wet soil, rocks
- pilot streamer. charged particle send from the cloud seeking shortest
distance for a lightning between ground and the cloud
- plate tectonics. the theory that the earth's surface consists of
plates, or large crustal slabs, whose constant motion explains continental drift, mountain
- pyroclastics (tephra). various-sized particles ejected by volcanic
- shield volcano. low, broad-profile volcano built up by outpourings of
highly fluid basaltic lava.
- SO Southern Oscillation
- stratovolcano (composite volcano). cone constructed by alternating
layers of lava and
- pyroclastic material. debris comming out of a volcano during an
- subduction. the sinking of one crustal plate under another as they
- thunderstorm. storm accompanied by thunder and lightning
- vent. an opening in the Earth's surface through which gas or lava can
- volcanology. study of volcanos
- wavelength. the distance, measured in the direction of progression of a
wave, from any given point to the next point characterized by the same phase
- wave period. time between two successive waves