- amino acid
- A building block for proteins. There are 20 different
amino acids. They are connected in linear chains to form
proteins. The order of the amino acids determine which type
of protein is formed.
- Y-shaped protein produced by B cells, a type of white blood
cells. They bind to foreign particles invading the body and
mark them for disposal by macrophages.
- The molecular pattern on the surface of foreign particles
invading the body. It alerts the immune system to destroy
- Group of bacteria that survive in environments with extreme
heat, pressure, and salinity.
- B cell
- White blood cell that produces antibodies.
- base pair
- In DNA, a pair of bases such as adenine and thymine
or guanine and cytosine.
- DNA-DNA hybridization
- A method for comparing the DNA sequences of two species.
In this technique, the DNA of the two species are mixed
together and are allowed to combine. The temperature is then
raised to separate the resulting hybrid DNA. The higher the
temperature needed the closer the two species are on a family
- A type of protein that increases the rate of a reaction and
remains unchanged at the end of it.
- The bacteria not classified as archaebacteria.
- Cell that has a nucleus and other organelles.
- The changes in a population within lines of descent over
- The deliberate introduction of antigens into the body in
order to produce an immune response and the creation of memory
white blood cells.
- In biology, one of three categories into which all living
organisms are classified.
- White blood cell that "eats" invading foreign particles in
the body and can alert other white blood cells by displaying
the invader's antigens.
- memory cell
- A cell that is formed in response to invasion by a foreign
agent and that circulates in the body for some time, available
to quickly start a new attack if the same kind of invader
- A heritable change in the kind, structure, sequence, or
number of DNA molecules.
- (plural: nuclei) The organelle that houses the
DNA of a cell.
- Any of various membranous sacs or envelopes that separate
portions of the cytoplasm in a cell. (The cell is divided into
two main sections: the nucleus and the cytoplasm.)
- plasma cell
- An antibody-secreting cell that is produced from a B cell,
a type of white blood cell.
- A small ring of DNA found in bacteria.
- primary immune
- The response from white blood cells and their products
that are caused by a first-time encounter with an antigen.
- The group of mammals that includes prosimians (such as
lemurs) and anthropoids (monkeys, apes, and humans).
- A single-celled organism with no nucleus or other
internal organelles; all bacteria are prokaryotes.
- A chemical substance composed of chains of amino acids.
It helps the body digest food, repair cells, and perform other
- A single-celled eukaryote, an organism with cells that
- An enzyme that cuts up DNA in accordance to
specific base pairing.
- selection pressure
- A change in the environment which encourages certain
species with specific traits well-adapted to the environment to survive.
- T cell
- White blood that produces a protein to make B cells divide
into memory cells and plasma cells.
- A substance designed to help protect the immune system
against a certain disease or virus. Inactivated vaccines
are composed of chemically killed bacteria or viruses.
Attenuated vaccines are live bacteria or viruses that
have been altered so that they can no longer multiply.
Subunit vaccines are vaccines that contain only the
antigens that alert the immune system.
- vector, cloning
- An organism that carries recombinant DNA back into a living cell.
- Any animal that has a backbone made of bony segments
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