x = sin y
y = sin^(-1) x
y = arcsin x
Arcsin x is a number whose sine is x.
Some rotations do not have values for the inverse trig. functions. 100° is an example that does not have an arcsin. The ranges of the inverse functions are listed below.
y = Arcsin x [-((PI)/2), (PI)/2]
y = Arccos x [0, (PI)]
y = Arctan x [-((PI)/2), (PI)/2]
1. Problem: Find Arcsin ((SQRT(2))/2). Solution: Using a unit circle like the one pictured in the accompanying figure, you can see that there is only one angle in the Arcsin's range that has a sine of SQRT(2))/2. That angle is (PI)/4. Arcsin (SQRT(2))/2 = (PI)/4Back to top.
1. Problem: Solve for x: 2sin x = 1. Solution: Solve for sin x by dividing by 2. sin x = (1/2) The solutions are any angles that have a sine of (1/2). (This could also be written as arcsin (1/2).) Using a unit circle figure, you can locate the angles where the sine is (1/2). There are two angles on the unit circle, ((PI)/6) and (5(PI))/6. Also, if you add any multiple of 2(PI) to the angles you also have valid solutions (because ((PI)/6 + 2(PI) also has a sine of (1/2)). ((PI)/6) + 2k(PI) and (5(PI)/6) + 2k(PI) where k is any integer.Back to top.
1. Problem: Find length b in the accompanying figure. Solution: We see taht we know the length of the hypotenuse and the measure of angle A. We also see that we need to find the length of b. b is adjacent to angle A. By definition, cosine = adjacent over hypotenuse. Therefore, we write an equation using the cosine. cos 19° = b/70 Multiply each side by 70 to isolate the variable b. 70(cos 19°) = b Use a calculator to find the cos 19°. b = 66.19Back to top.
a b c ----- = ----- = ----- sin A sin B sin CWhen you know any two angles and any side of a triangle, you can use the law of sines to solve the triangle.
1. Problem: In triangle ABC, a = 4.56, A = 43°, and C = 57°. Solution: First, sketch the triangle and include any given information. The accompanying figure is our idea of a sketch. Find angle B. Angle B = 180° - (45° + 57°) = 80° Now we use the law of sines to find the other lengths. c a ----- = ----- sin C sin A a(sin C) c = -------- sin A Plug in any known information. 4.56(sin 57°) c = ------------- sin 43° Use a calculator to find the sines. 4.56(.8387) c = ----------- .6820 c = 5.61 Now solve for b. b a ----- = ----- sin B sin A a(sin B) b = -------- sin A Plug in any known information. 4.56(sin 80°) b = ------------- .6820 Use a calculator to find the sines. 4.56(.9848) b = ----------- .6820 b = 6.58There is another case when you can use the law of sines. When you know two sides and an angle opposite one of the sides, the law of sines can be used. However, with this case, you have to be aware that there might not be a solution, or there may be two! One solution is also possible.
1. Problem: In triangle ABC, a = 15, b = 25, and angle A = 47°. Solve the triangle. Solution: Start out by looking for the measure of angle B. a b ----- = ----- sin A sin B b(sin A) sin B = -------- a Plug in any known information. 25(sin 47°) sin B = ----------- 15 Use a calculator to find the sine. 25(.7314) sin B = --------- 15 sin B = 1.219 Since an angle cannot have a sine greater than 1, there is no solution for this triangle.Back to top.
a^2 = b^2 + c^2 - 2bc(cos A)
b^2 = a^2 + c^2 - 2ac(cos B)
c^2 = a^2 + b^2 - 2ab(cos C)
The law of cosines can be used in two different cases. First, if you know the lengths of all three sides of a triangle, you can use the law of cosines. Secondly, you can use the law of cosines when two sides and the included angle are known.
1. Problem: In triangle ABC, a = 24, c = 32, and angle B = 115°. Solve the triangle. Solution: We know two sides. Find the third using the law of cosines. b^2 = a^2 + c^2 - 2ac(cos B) Plug in any known information. b^2 = 24^2 + 32^2 - 2 * 24 * 32(-.4226) b^2 = 2249 Solve for b by taking the square root of each side. b = SQRT(2249) = 47. 4 Using the law of sines, angle A = 27.32°. Since we know that triangles are made of three angles that sum to 18°, we can find the measure of angle C by setting up an equation. Angle C = 180° - 115° - 27.32° = 37.68°Back to top.
Take the quiz on equations and triangles. The quiz is very useful for either review or to see if you've really got the topic down.