ART IN DAILY USE
It`s amazing how many things in our opinion are neccesary in life: clothes and shoes, furniture, electronic and hygienic equipment and things we dream about like car or something else. The reason why our needs are increasing is life democratization in general. It means that technique provides new machines, mechanisms, their models and versions and our tastes, which changes from time to time. Sometimes ago handicraftsmen, often artists in their profession made everything what people needed in towns. Farmers made everything by themselves. Nowadays every object, every equipment is produced by factories.
1. POUL HENNINGSEN
To produce them you have to have two fundamental bases: technological documentary - which is made by engineers (sometimes it`s very simple, for example lamp /illustration 1/ and sometimes quite complicated - television or car) and project - which is prepared by an artist or special team representing pattern-designing.
Kinds of useful things which were made by people during ages have been changing. We can say that one hundred years ago artist took care of shapes, decorations and ornaments. Look at illustration 2. Nowadays artist`s opinion is very different. He has to keep eye on form, size, proportion and colour. FUNCTIONAL means designed for or adapted to a particular need or activity and it is very important. The features of functional things are a simplicity. There are no decorations. Sometimes we can find some ornaments in folk craft.
The things we can see around are smooth, sleek and appropriate to its usefulness, for example: the shape of car or plane.
3. DESIGNING TEAM
OF ERICCSON COMPANY
Being designer is very difficult job. In opposition to painter, sculptor or graphic, artist has many limitations. If he wants to design telephone (illustration 4) he has to think about box and receiver, material for using, technology, distance, angle of inclination of microphone to mouth, internal contour of hand which adapted to receiver. Easiness of keeping box during carrying it from place to place. If designer knows this information he can use his taste concerning shape and colour.
4. CHARLES EAMES
A chair with a footstool
To design a chair or armchair the most original and attractive idea has to correspond to the position your muscles and skeleton should take when you are resting (illustration 4).
5. JACOBS JENSEN
A Hi-Fi set
`70 (XXth century)
Do notice that many things have different shapes. There are lots of types of chairs and armchairs. The number of new models of cars, TVs, videocassette recorders, etc. rises each year (illustration 5). This increment depends on artists` imagination and technical achievements.
Shapes of all these things are not influenced by us. Being in shops gives us possibility to choose these things which shape and colour we like the most. We not only buy things - we also decorate our flats like "real" artists. The same opinion concerns clothes. Sometimes we can`t afford to buy what we want. But we can compose (using careful thought) interesting, modern clothes.
Nowadays designing teams work in many different industries in the world. There are also special institutions created which are busy with looking into things and their utility.
We know that designer has to know everything about using any advice and he can think about final shape and colour.
Let`s stay for a moment at the colour. For example, the colour of telephone depends on our taste. But it doesn`t happen always. Sometimes colour is connected with safety. The colour of car is important, particulary in foggy days. We know that cars in "hot" colours are safer than grey, green or blue cars. If elements in machines are especially dangerous, they should be painted "hot" colours. It stares emergency off.
"Cold" colours quieten us down. Not by accident the walls in hospitals, libraries, sanatoriums are painted "cold" colours. Educated psychologists and artists should decide about colour in particular situation.
This is our opinion - clients and users.
What do the artists think about it? We don`t know. Because you never know everything for sure in art. We want to introduce Kazimierz Malewicz`s about it. He was an author of Suprematism 1922 - 1927. In his opinion everything what is in museum isn`t functional. It wouldn`t be in museum! A long time ago it seemes to be functional because there wasn`t anything more functional... Malewicz writes that in people`s opinion an artist makes useless things but they don`t think that those useless things will be eternal and actual. And everything what is very useful will be insubstantial. Malewicz says that the things we use everyday aren`t an effect of practical solutions. Because our feelings about sitting, standing, running are artistic feelings. Many useful things aren`t produced purposely. They are an effect of artist`s feelings.